Whether you love him or, you know, *don’t* love him, there’s no denying that Stephen Wolfram has founded a host of fascinating projects... *most* of them named Wolfram-something-or-other.

What *are* all these Wolfram-branded projects?

Who *is* Stephen Wolfram?

—

Some of the things Stephen Wolfram created:

- 1987 Wolfram Research
- 1988 Mathematica
- 2009 Wolfram Alpha
- 2014 Wolfram Language
- 2020 Wolfram Physics

not to mention:

- Wolfram Cloud
- Wolfram One
- Wolfram Notebooks
- Wolfram Player
- Wolfram Script
- Wolfram Engine
- Wolfram Foundation

More about Stephen Wolfram:

Stephen Wolfram’s education:

Some of Stephen Wolfram’s special subjects:

Some of Stephen Wolfram’s books:

Other people involved in the Wolfram Physics Project:

Reference:

- Wolfram Research now has over 800 employees

Image:

- Animation. 1200 iterations of the ‘Rule 110’ Automata by Mr. Heretic licenced under CC BY-SA 3.0

Some of my own projects:

- things made thinkable – visualization of nuclides – tap the binding energy button bottom right to show the binding energy per nucleon
- Open Web Mind – subscribe to the newsletter or YouTube channel for more on shared human intelligence

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Whether you love him or, you know, *don’t* love him, there’s no denying that Stephen Wolfram has founded a host of fascinating projects... *most* of them named Wolfram-something-or-other.

What *are* all these Wolfram-branded projects?

Who *is* Stephen Wolfram?

—

Some of the things Stephen Wolfram created:

- 1987 Wolfram Research
- 1988 Mathematica
- 2009 Wolfram Alpha
- 2014 Wolfram Language
- 2020 Wolfram Physics

not to mention:

- Wolfram Cloud
- Wolfram One
- Wolfram Notebooks
- Wolfram Player
- Wolfram Script
- Wolfram Engine
- Wolfram Foundation

More about Stephen Wolfram:

Stephen Wolfram’s education:

Some of Stephen Wolfram’s special subjects:

Some of Stephen Wolfram’s books:

Other people involved in the Wolfram Physics Project:

Reference:

- Wolfram Research now has over 800 employees

Image:

- Animation. 1200 iterations of the ‘Rule 110’ Automata by Mr. Heretic licenced under CC BY-SA 3.0

Some of my own projects:

- things made thinkable – visualization of nuclides – tap the binding energy button bottom right to show the binding energy per nucleon
- Open Web Mind – subscribe to the newsletter or YouTube channel for more on shared human intelligence

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Whether you love him or, you know, *don’t* love him, there’s no denying that Stephen Wolfram has founded a host of fascinating projects... *most* of them named Wolfram-something-or-other.

What *are* all these Wolfram-branded projects?

Who *is* Stephen Wolfram?

—

Some of the things Stephen Wolfram created:

- 1987 Wolfram Research
- 1988 Mathematica
- 2009 Wolfram Alpha
- 2014 Wolfram Language
- 2020 Wolfram Physics

not to mention:

- Wolfram Cloud
- Wolfram One
- Wolfram Notebooks
- Wolfram Player
- Wolfram Script
- Wolfram Engine
- Wolfram Foundation

More about Stephen Wolfram:

Stephen Wolfram’s education:

Some of Stephen Wolfram’s special subjects:

Some of Stephen Wolfram’s books:

Other people involved in the Wolfram Physics Project:

Reference:

- Wolfram Research now has over 800 employees

Image:

- Animation. 1200 iterations of the ‘Rule 110’ Automata by Mr. Heretic licenced under CC BY-SA 3.0

Some of my own projects:

- things made thinkable – visualization of nuclides – tap the binding energy button bottom right to show the binding energy per nucleon
- Open Web Mind – subscribe to the newsletter or YouTube channel for more on shared human intelligence

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Jonathan showed how the Wolfram model might shed light on some of the most mysterious phenomena of our universe, from black hole inspirals to quantum entanglement.

He focused on four areas where the class of theories encompassed by the Wolfram model might predict observable phenomena:

1. Cosmological consequences of global dimension change

2. Astrophysical consequences of local dimension change

3. Discretization effects during extreme astrophysical events

4. Quantum mechanical effects such as maximum entanglement speed

These dozen minutes of my conversation with Jonathan were dense with insights into Wolfram Physics, a true pleasure to revisit!

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Category error
- Causally connected
- Cosmological inflation
- Lambda-CDM cosmology
- Horizon problem
- Flatness problem
- Magnetic monopole problem
- Cosmic microwave background
- Cosmic neutrino background
- Inflaton scalar fieldhttps://lasttheory.com/channel/055-where-is-the-evidence-for-wolfram-physics
- Quintessent scalar field
- Decoupling time
- Recombination time
- Lensing effects
- LIGO – Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory
- Black hole inspiral
- Causal edge density
- Weyl curvature
- Quadrupole moment
- Entanglement structure
- Branchial graph
- Quantum information theory
- Margolis Leviton bound

People mentioned by Jonathan:

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Jonathan showed how the Wolfram model might shed light on some of the most mysterious phenomena of our universe, from black hole inspirals to quantum entanglement.

He focused on four areas where the class of theories encompassed by the Wolfram model might predict observable phenomena:

1. Cosmological consequences of global dimension change

2. Astrophysical consequences of local dimension change

3. Discretization effects during extreme astrophysical events

4. Quantum mechanical effects such as maximum entanglement speed

These dozen minutes of my conversation with Jonathan were dense with insights into Wolfram Physics, a true pleasure to revisit!

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Category error
- Causally connected
- Cosmological inflation
- Lambda-CDM cosmology
- Horizon problem
- Flatness problem
- Magnetic monopole problem
- Cosmic microwave background
- Cosmic neutrino background
- Inflaton scalar fieldhttps://lasttheory.com/channel/055-where-is-the-evidence-for-wolfram-physics
- Quintessent scalar field
- Decoupling time
- Recombination time
- Lensing effects
- LIGO – Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory
- Black hole inspiral
- Causal edge density
- Weyl curvature
- Quadrupole moment
- Entanglement structure
- Branchial graph
- Quantum information theory
- Margolis Leviton bound

People mentioned by Jonathan:

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Jonathan showed how the Wolfram model might shed light on some of the most mysterious phenomena of our universe, from black hole inspirals to quantum entanglement.

He focused on four areas where the class of theories encompassed by the Wolfram model might predict observable phenomena:

1. Cosmological consequences of global dimension change

2. Astrophysical consequences of local dimension change

3. Discretization effects during extreme astrophysical events

4. Quantum mechanical effects such as maximum entanglement speed

These dozen minutes of my conversation with Jonathan were dense with insights into Wolfram Physics, a true pleasure to revisit!

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Category error
- Causally connected
- Cosmological inflation
- Lambda-CDM cosmology
- Horizon problem
- Flatness problem
- Magnetic monopole problem
- Cosmic microwave background
- Cosmic neutrino background
- Inflaton scalar fieldhttps://lasttheory.com/channel/055-where-is-the-evidence-for-wolfram-physics
- Quintessent scalar field
- Decoupling time
- Recombination time
- Lensing effects
- LIGO – Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory
- Black hole inspiral
- Causal edge density
- Weyl curvature
- Quadrupole moment
- Entanglement structure
- Branchial graph
- Quantum information theory
- Margolis Leviton bound

People mentioned by Jonathan:

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Take a look at this quick introduction for subscribers to The Last Theory, then jump to the 2-minute trailer on the new channel.

And if you haven’t done so already, make sure to subscribe to the new Open Web Mind channel, podcast and newsletter.

If you’re interested in Wolfram Physics, I think you’ll find Open Web Mind fascinating!

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery founder of Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Take a look at this quick introduction for subscribers to The Last Theory, then jump to the 2-minute trailer on the new channel.

And if you haven’t done so already, make sure to subscribe to the new Open Web Mind channel, podcast and newsletter.

If you’re interested in Wolfram Physics, I think you’ll find Open Web Mind fascinating!

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery founder of Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Take a look at this quick introduction for subscribers to The Last Theory, then jump to the 2-minute trailer on the new channel.

And if you haven’t done so already, make sure to subscribe to the new Open Web Mind channel, podcast and newsletter.

If you’re interested in Wolfram Physics, I think you’ll find Open Web Mind fascinating!

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery founder of Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Is one electron formed of 10 nodes, or 10100 nodes?

And if it’s 10100 nodes, might it prove impossible to *simulate* an electron on any computer we can possibly imagine?

When I asked Jonathan Gorard this question, he took us on a tour of the scales of the universe, from the Planck scale to the Hubble scale.

He revealed how the Wolfram Physics Project’s early estimate of the scale of the hypergraph was based on a tower of rickety assumptions.

And he explained how the Wolfram model might connect with particle physics regardless of the disparities of scale.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Planck scale
- Hubble scale
- General relativity
- Fluid mechanics
- Quantum mechanics
- Quantum Field Theory
- Scattering amplitudes

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Is one electron formed of 10 nodes, or 10100 nodes?

And if it’s 10100 nodes, might it prove impossible to *simulate* an electron on any computer we can possibly imagine?

When I asked Jonathan Gorard this question, he took us on a tour of the scales of the universe, from the Planck scale to the Hubble scale.

He revealed how the Wolfram Physics Project’s early estimate of the scale of the hypergraph was based on a tower of rickety assumptions.

And he explained how the Wolfram model might connect with particle physics regardless of the disparities of scale.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Planck scale
- Hubble scale
- General relativity
- Fluid mechanics
- Quantum mechanics
- Quantum Field Theory
- Scattering amplitudes

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Is one electron formed of 10 nodes, or 10100 nodes?

And if it’s 10100 nodes, might it prove impossible to *simulate* an electron on any computer we can possibly imagine?

When I asked Jonathan Gorard this question, he took us on a tour of the scales of the universe, from the Planck scale to the Hubble scale.

He revealed how the Wolfram Physics Project’s early estimate of the scale of the hypergraph was based on a tower of rickety assumptions.

And he explained how the Wolfram model might connect with particle physics regardless of the disparities of scale.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Planck scale
- Hubble scale
- General relativity
- Fluid mechanics
- Quantum mechanics
- Quantum Field Theory
- Scattering amplitudes

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>It’s important because getting a *measure* of the curvature of the hypergraph takes us one step further in Jonathan Gorard’s derivation of General Relativity from Wolfram Physics.

Einstein’s equations relate the curvature of space to the presence of matter. So if we’re going to prove that Einstein’s equations follow from the Wolfram model, we’re going to need that *measure* of the curvature of the hypergraph.

Once again, a two-dimensional crab comes to the rescue, given us a way to measure the curvature of a universe from *inside* that universe.

—

See Stephen Wolfram’s announcement, under Curvature in Space & Einstein’s Equations, also included as the introduction to his book A project to find the Fundamental Theory of Physics, page 20, for more on measuring the curvature of space

Concepts:

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>It’s important because getting a *measure* of the curvature of the hypergraph takes us one step further in Jonathan Gorard’s derivation of General Relativity from Wolfram Physics.

Einstein’s equations relate the curvature of space to the presence of matter. So if we’re going to prove that Einstein’s equations follow from the Wolfram model, we’re going to need that *measure* of the curvature of the hypergraph.

Once again, a two-dimensional crab comes to the rescue, given us a way to measure the curvature of a universe from *inside* that universe.

—

See Stephen Wolfram’s announcement, under Curvature in Space & Einstein’s Equations, also included as the introduction to his book A project to find the Fundamental Theory of Physics, page 20, for more on measuring the curvature of space

Concepts:

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>It’s important because getting a *measure* of the curvature of the hypergraph takes us one step further in Jonathan Gorard’s derivation of General Relativity from Wolfram Physics.

Einstein’s equations relate the curvature of space to the presence of matter. So if we’re going to prove that Einstein’s equations follow from the Wolfram model, we’re going to need that *measure* of the curvature of the hypergraph.

Once again, a two-dimensional crab comes to the rescue, given us a way to measure the curvature of a universe from *inside* that universe.

—

See Stephen Wolfram’s announcement, under Curvature in Space & Einstein’s Equations, also included as the introduction to his book A project to find the Fundamental Theory of Physics, page 20, for more on measuring the curvature of space

Concepts:

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>He starts with a toy model in which elementary particles are non-planar tangles moving and interacting in an otherwise planar hypergraph.

But he doesn’t stop there.

He explains that there’s an infinite variety of hypergraphs that give rise to such persistent topological obstructions.

These localized tangles behave in ways that look a lot like particle physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Utility graph
- Kuratowski’s theorem
- Wagner’s theorem
- Complete graphs – including K_5
- Complete bipartite graphs – including K_3,3
- Robertson-Seymour Theorem
- Graph minor
- Forbidden minor characterization

Image:

- Feynman diagram Feynmann Diagram Gluon Radiation by Joel Holdsworth, public domain

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>He starts with a toy model in which elementary particles are non-planar tangles moving and interacting in an otherwise planar hypergraph.

But he doesn’t stop there.

He explains that there’s an infinite variety of hypergraphs that give rise to such persistent topological obstructions.

These localized tangles behave in ways that look a lot like particle physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Utility graph
- Kuratowski’s theorem
- Wagner’s theorem
- Complete graphs – including K_5
- Complete bipartite graphs – including K_3,3
- Robertson-Seymour Theorem
- Graph minor
- Forbidden minor characterization

Image:

- Feynman diagram Feynmann Diagram Gluon Radiation by Joel Holdsworth, public domain

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>He starts with a toy model in which elementary particles are non-planar tangles moving and interacting in an otherwise planar hypergraph.

But he doesn’t stop there.

He explains that there’s an infinite variety of hypergraphs that give rise to such persistent topological obstructions.

These localized tangles behave in ways that look a lot like particle physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Utility graph
- Kuratowski’s theorem
- Wagner’s theorem
- Complete graphs – including K_5
- Complete bipartite graphs – including K_3,3
- Robertson-Seymour Theorem
- Graph minor
- Forbidden minor characterization

Image:

- Feynman diagram Feynmann Diagram Gluon Radiation by Joel Holdsworth, public domain

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>The reason I’m asking is that according to Einstein’s general theory of relativity, *our* universe *is* curved, by the presence of matter.

If Wolfram Physics is to be a true model of *our* universe, then the space represented by the hypergraph must also be curved by the presence of matter.

Which means that determining whether space is curved is crucial to Jonathan Gorard’s derivation of Einstein’s equations from the Wolfram model.

Fortunately, there’s a way to find out that’s so simple that even a crab or a space frog could do it.

Here’s how to tell if *your* universe curved.

—

Dimensionality:

- How to measure the dimensionality of the universe
- Are Wolfram’s graphs three‑dimensional?
- What are dimensions in Wolfram’s universe?

Space-time:

Euclidean geometry:

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>The reason I’m asking is that according to Einstein’s general theory of relativity, *our* universe *is* curved, by the presence of matter.

If Wolfram Physics is to be a true model of *our* universe, then the space represented by the hypergraph must also be curved by the presence of matter.

Which means that determining whether space is curved is crucial to Jonathan Gorard’s derivation of Einstein’s equations from the Wolfram model.

Fortunately, there’s a way to find out that’s so simple that even a crab or a space frog could do it.

Here’s how to tell if *your* universe curved.

—

Dimensionality:

- How to measure the dimensionality of the universe
- Are Wolfram’s graphs three‑dimensional?
- What are dimensions in Wolfram’s universe?

Space-time:

Euclidean geometry:

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>The reason I’m asking is that according to Einstein’s general theory of relativity, *our* universe *is* curved, by the presence of matter.

If Wolfram Physics is to be a true model of *our* universe, then the space represented by the hypergraph must also be curved by the presence of matter.

Which means that determining whether space is curved is crucial to Jonathan Gorard’s derivation of Einstein’s equations from the Wolfram model.

Fortunately, there’s a way to find out that’s so simple that even a crab or a space frog could do it.

Here’s how to tell if *your* universe curved.

—

Dimensionality:

- How to measure the dimensionality of the universe
- Are Wolfram’s graphs three‑dimensional?
- What are dimensions in Wolfram’s universe?

Space-time:

Euclidean geometry:

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>His answer took us in an unexpected direction.

If the Wolfram model is to be an accurate model of our universe, then it *must* give us the Einstein equations.

But what if *any* old model with *any* old rules can give us the Einstein equations?

What if general relativity isn’t so special?

This is one of the shorter excerpts from my conversation with Jonathan, but it’s a fascinating one.

It takes us to one of the most powerful aspects of the Wolfram model: its ability to answer questions about *why* our universe is the way it is, questions that were once in the realm of philosophy but may now be within the scope of physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>His answer took us in an unexpected direction.

If the Wolfram model is to be an accurate model of our universe, then it *must* give us the Einstein equations.

But what if *any* old model with *any* old rules can give us the Einstein equations?

What if general relativity isn’t so special?

This is one of the shorter excerpts from my conversation with Jonathan, but it’s a fascinating one.

It takes us to one of the most powerful aspects of the Wolfram model: its ability to answer questions about *why* our universe is the way it is, questions that were once in the realm of philosophy but may now be within the scope of physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>His answer took us in an unexpected direction.

If the Wolfram model is to be an accurate model of our universe, then it *must* give us the Einstein equations.

But what if *any* old model with *any* old rules can give us the Einstein equations?

What if general relativity isn’t so special?

This is one of the shorter excerpts from my conversation with Jonathan, but it’s a fascinating one.

It takes us to one of the most powerful aspects of the Wolfram model: its ability to answer questions about *why* our universe is the way it is, questions that were once in the realm of philosophy but may now be within the scope of physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Over and over again, people have told me that the Wolfram model must be rejected because it makes *no* predictions.

I could respond by saying that Wolfram Physics *does* make predictions. It predicts Einstein’s equations. It predicts Schrödinger’s equation.

But it’s true that it doesn’t make any predictions that *differ* from those of general relativity and quantum mechanics. At least, not yet.

So here’s my more robust response to the objection: *all* scientific theories make *no* predictions when they’re first formulated.

If we dismiss any new theory solely because it doesn’t make any predictions, then we’d dismiss *all* new theories.

It’s time for academics to learn the lessons of the history of science, and open their minds to bold, new ideas, like Wolfram Physics.

—

Ideas:

- Tycho Brahe
- The paths of the planets are elliptical according to Johannes Kepler
- Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton
- Astronomers’ test of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity
- Against Method by Paul Feyerabend
- The Newtonian Casino by Thomas Bass

Ancient astronomies:

Images:

- Paul Feyerabend Berkeley by Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend reproduced with permission

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Over and over again, people have told me that the Wolfram model must be rejected because it makes *no* predictions.

I could respond by saying that Wolfram Physics *does* make predictions. It predicts Einstein’s equations. It predicts Schrödinger’s equation.

But it’s true that it doesn’t make any predictions that *differ* from those of general relativity and quantum mechanics. At least, not yet.

So here’s my more robust response to the objection: *all* scientific theories make *no* predictions when they’re first formulated.

If we dismiss any new theory solely because it doesn’t make any predictions, then we’d dismiss *all* new theories.

It’s time for academics to learn the lessons of the history of science, and open their minds to bold, new ideas, like Wolfram Physics.

—

Ideas:

- Tycho Brahe
- The paths of the planets are elliptical according to Johannes Kepler
- Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton
- Astronomers’ test of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity
- Against Method by Paul Feyerabend
- The Newtonian Casino by Thomas Bass

Ancient astronomies:

Images:

- Paul Feyerabend Berkeley by Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend reproduced with permission

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Over and over again, people have told me that the Wolfram model must be rejected because it makes *no* predictions.

I could respond by saying that Wolfram Physics *does* make predictions. It predicts Einstein’s equations. It predicts Schrödinger’s equation.

But it’s true that it doesn’t make any predictions that *differ* from those of general relativity and quantum mechanics. At least, not yet.

So here’s my more robust response to the objection: *all* scientific theories make *no* predictions when they’re first formulated.

If we dismiss any new theory solely because it doesn’t make any predictions, then we’d dismiss *all* new theories.

It’s time for academics to learn the lessons of the history of science, and open their minds to bold, new ideas, like Wolfram Physics.

—

Ideas:

- Tycho Brahe
- The paths of the planets are elliptical according to Johannes Kepler
- Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton
- Astronomers’ test of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity
- Against Method by Paul Feyerabend
- The Newtonian Casino by Thomas Bass

Ancient astronomies:

Images:

- Paul Feyerabend Berkeley by Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend reproduced with permission

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>One of the most compelling results to come out of the Wolfram Physics is Jonathan’s derivation of the Einstein equations from the hypergraph.

Whenever I hear anyone criticize the Wolfram model for bearing no relation to reality, I tell them this: Jonathan Gorard has proved that general relativity can be derived from the hypergraph.

In this excerpt from our conversation, Jonathan describes how making just three reasonable assumptions – causal invariance, asymptotic dimension preservation and weak ergodicity – allowed him to derive the vacuum Einstein equations from the Wolfram model.

In other words, the structure of space-time in the absence of matter more or less *falls out of* the hypergraph.

And making one further assumption – that particles can be treated as localized topological obstructions – allowed Jonathan to derive the *non*-vacuum Einstein equations from the Wolfram model.

In other words, the structure of space-time in the *presence* of matter, too, falls out of the hypergraph.

It’s difficult to overstate the importance of this result.

At the very least, we can say that the Wolfram model is *consistent* with general relativity.

To state it more strongly: we no longer need to take general relativity as a given; instead, we can *derive* it from Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan’s seminal paper on how to derive general relativity

- Some Relativistic and Gravitational Properties of the Wolfram Model; also published in Complex Systems

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People mentioned by Jonathan

Research mentioned by Jonathan

- The volume of a small geodesic ball of a Riemannian manifold by Alfred Gray
- Tubes by Alfred Gray

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Hausdorff dimension
- Geodesic balls, tubes & cones
- Ricci scalar curvature
- Ricci curvature tensor
- Einstein equations
- Einstein–Hilbert action
- Relativistic Lagrangian density
- Causal graph
- Tensor rank
- Trace

From *A Project to find the Fundamental Theory of Physics* by Stephen Wolfram:

Images

- Spinning and chargend black hole with accretion disk by Simon Tyran, Vienna (Симон Тыран) licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0
- Альфред Грэй в Греции by AlionaKo licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>One of the most compelling results to come out of the Wolfram Physics is Jonathan’s derivation of the Einstein equations from the hypergraph.

Whenever I hear anyone criticize the Wolfram model for bearing no relation to reality, I tell them this: Jonathan Gorard has proved that general relativity can be derived from the hypergraph.

In this excerpt from our conversation, Jonathan describes how making just three reasonable assumptions – causal invariance, asymptotic dimension preservation and weak ergodicity – allowed him to derive the vacuum Einstein equations from the Wolfram model.

In other words, the structure of space-time in the absence of matter more or less *falls out of* the hypergraph.

And making one further assumption – that particles can be treated as localized topological obstructions – allowed Jonathan to derive the *non*-vacuum Einstein equations from the Wolfram model.

In other words, the structure of space-time in the *presence* of matter, too, falls out of the hypergraph.

It’s difficult to overstate the importance of this result.

At the very least, we can say that the Wolfram model is *consistent* with general relativity.

To state it more strongly: we no longer need to take general relativity as a given; instead, we can *derive* it from Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan’s seminal paper on how to derive general relativity

- Some Relativistic and Gravitational Properties of the Wolfram Model; also published in Complex Systems

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People mentioned by Jonathan

Research mentioned by Jonathan

- The volume of a small geodesic ball of a Riemannian manifold by Alfred Gray
- Tubes by Alfred Gray

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Hausdorff dimension
- Geodesic balls, tubes & cones
- Ricci scalar curvature
- Ricci curvature tensor
- Einstein equations
- Einstein–Hilbert action
- Relativistic Lagrangian density
- Causal graph
- Tensor rank
- Trace

From *A Project to find the Fundamental Theory of Physics* by Stephen Wolfram:

Images

- Spinning and chargend black hole with accretion disk by Simon Tyran, Vienna (Симон Тыран) licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0
- Альфред Грэй в Греции by AlionaKo licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>One of the most compelling results to come out of the Wolfram Physics is Jonathan’s derivation of the Einstein equations from the hypergraph.

Whenever I hear anyone criticize the Wolfram model for bearing no relation to reality, I tell them this: Jonathan Gorard has proved that general relativity can be derived from the hypergraph.

In this excerpt from our conversation, Jonathan describes how making just three reasonable assumptions – causal invariance, asymptotic dimension preservation and weak ergodicity – allowed him to derive the vacuum Einstein equations from the Wolfram model.

In other words, the structure of space-time in the absence of matter more or less *falls out of* the hypergraph.

And making one further assumption – that particles can be treated as localized topological obstructions – allowed Jonathan to derive the *non*-vacuum Einstein equations from the Wolfram model.

In other words, the structure of space-time in the *presence* of matter, too, falls out of the hypergraph.

It’s difficult to overstate the importance of this result.

At the very least, we can say that the Wolfram model is *consistent* with general relativity.

To state it more strongly: we no longer need to take general relativity as a given; instead, we can *derive* it from Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan’s seminal paper on how to derive general relativity

- Some Relativistic and Gravitational Properties of the Wolfram Model; also published in Complex Systems

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People mentioned by Jonathan

Research mentioned by Jonathan

- The volume of a small geodesic ball of a Riemannian manifold by Alfred Gray
- Tubes by Alfred Gray

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Hausdorff dimension
- Geodesic balls, tubes & cones
- Ricci scalar curvature
- Ricci curvature tensor
- Einstein equations
- Einstein–Hilbert action
- Relativistic Lagrangian density
- Causal graph
- Tensor rank
- Trace

From *A Project to find the Fundamental Theory of Physics* by Stephen Wolfram:

Images

- Spinning and chargend black hole with accretion disk by Simon Tyran, Vienna (Симон Тыран) licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0
- Альфред Грэй в Греции by AlionaKo licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>The core idea of Wolfram Physics is that we can model the universe as a hypergraph. If we want this idea to be taken seriously, we’re going to have to derive physics from the hypergraph.

The twin pillars of physics, as we know it, are quantum mechanics and general relativity.

In this episode, Jonathan explains how *quantum mechanics* can be derived from the Wolfram model, indeed, how quantum mechanics unexpectedly *fell out of* the model.

It’s a fascinating story.

We start with the role of the observer. According to Jonathan, it turns out not to be necessary to narrow our focus to only *causally invariant* rules.

Why not? Because macroscopic observers like ourselves *impose* causal invariance through our coarse-graining of the hypergraph. In other words, by *squinting* at the universe, seeing only its large-scale features and glossing over the finer details, we reduce multiple paths through the multiway graph to a single timeline, and, in the process, *impose* causal invariance.

Jonathan goes on to explain that this coarse-graining can be modelled with completion rules. These are fake rules, similar to the true rules of Wolfram Physics, but posited solely to model the coarse-graining of the hypergraph by the observer.

And here’s the thing. According to Jonathan, these completion rules are formally equivalent to the collapse of the wavefunction in quantum mechanics. In other words, we finally have an explanation for how the observer causes the collapse of the wavefunction, reducing Schrödinger’s half live, half dead cat to one that’s either dead or alive.

If Jonathan’s right, then this is a true breakthrough, not just in quantum mechanics, but in the philosophy of physics.

In the next episode, we’ll move on to the *other* pillar of physics: Jonathan will explain how to derive *general relativity* from the hypergraph.

There’s much more to explain about each of these derivations, but we’re finally getting to the crux of Wolfram Physics, the question of whether it can, after all, model *our* universe.

—

Jonathan’s seminal paper on how to derive quantum mechanics

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Causal invariance
- Computational irreducibility
- Celestial mechanics
- Molecular dynamics
- Space-like separation
- Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
- Heisenberg’s microscope experiment
- Quantum entanglement
- Bell’s inequalities
- Multiway system
- Coarse-graining
- Schrödinger equation
- Unitary operator
- Hermitian operator
- Conjugate transpose operation
- Time reversal
- Wavefunction collapse
- Quantum interference
- Quantum tunnelling

Stephen Wolfram’s books

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>The core idea of Wolfram Physics is that we can model the universe as a hypergraph. If we want this idea to be taken seriously, we’re going to have to derive physics from the hypergraph.

The twin pillars of physics, as we know it, are quantum mechanics and general relativity.

In this episode, Jonathan explains how *quantum mechanics* can be derived from the Wolfram model, indeed, how quantum mechanics unexpectedly *fell out of* the model.

It’s a fascinating story.

We start with the role of the observer. According to Jonathan, it turns out not to be necessary to narrow our focus to only *causally invariant* rules.

Why not? Because macroscopic observers like ourselves *impose* causal invariance through our coarse-graining of the hypergraph. In other words, by *squinting* at the universe, seeing only its large-scale features and glossing over the finer details, we reduce multiple paths through the multiway graph to a single timeline, and, in the process, *impose* causal invariance.

Jonathan goes on to explain that this coarse-graining can be modelled with completion rules. These are fake rules, similar to the true rules of Wolfram Physics, but posited solely to model the coarse-graining of the hypergraph by the observer.

And here’s the thing. According to Jonathan, these completion rules are formally equivalent to the collapse of the wavefunction in quantum mechanics. In other words, we finally have an explanation for how the observer causes the collapse of the wavefunction, reducing Schrödinger’s half live, half dead cat to one that’s either dead or alive.

If Jonathan’s right, then this is a true breakthrough, not just in quantum mechanics, but in the philosophy of physics.

In the next episode, we’ll move on to the *other* pillar of physics: Jonathan will explain how to derive *general relativity* from the hypergraph.

There’s much more to explain about each of these derivations, but we’re finally getting to the crux of Wolfram Physics, the question of whether it can, after all, model *our* universe.

—

Jonathan’s seminal paper on how to derive quantum mechanics

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Causal invariance
- Computational irreducibility
- Celestial mechanics
- Molecular dynamics
- Space-like separation
- Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
- Heisenberg’s microscope experiment
- Quantum entanglement
- Bell’s inequalities
- Multiway system
- Coarse-graining
- Schrödinger equation
- Unitary operator
- Hermitian operator
- Conjugate transpose operation
- Time reversal
- Wavefunction collapse
- Quantum interference
- Quantum tunnelling

Stephen Wolfram’s books

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>The core idea of Wolfram Physics is that we can model the universe as a hypergraph. If we want this idea to be taken seriously, we’re going to have to derive physics from the hypergraph.

The twin pillars of physics, as we know it, are quantum mechanics and general relativity.

In this episode, Jonathan explains how *quantum mechanics* can be derived from the Wolfram model, indeed, how quantum mechanics unexpectedly *fell out of* the model.

It’s a fascinating story.

We start with the role of the observer. According to Jonathan, it turns out not to be necessary to narrow our focus to only *causally invariant* rules.

Why not? Because macroscopic observers like ourselves *impose* causal invariance through our coarse-graining of the hypergraph. In other words, by *squinting* at the universe, seeing only its large-scale features and glossing over the finer details, we reduce multiple paths through the multiway graph to a single timeline, and, in the process, *impose* causal invariance.

Jonathan goes on to explain that this coarse-graining can be modelled with completion rules. These are fake rules, similar to the true rules of Wolfram Physics, but posited solely to model the coarse-graining of the hypergraph by the observer.

And here’s the thing. According to Jonathan, these completion rules are formally equivalent to the collapse of the wavefunction in quantum mechanics. In other words, we finally have an explanation for how the observer causes the collapse of the wavefunction, reducing Schrödinger’s half live, half dead cat to one that’s either dead or alive.

If Jonathan’s right, then this is a true breakthrough, not just in quantum mechanics, but in the philosophy of physics.

In the next episode, we’ll move on to the *other* pillar of physics: Jonathan will explain how to derive *general relativity* from the hypergraph.

There’s much more to explain about each of these derivations, but we’re finally getting to the crux of Wolfram Physics, the question of whether it can, after all, model *our* universe.

—

Jonathan’s seminal paper on how to derive quantum mechanics

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Causal invariance
- Computational irreducibility
- Celestial mechanics
- Molecular dynamics
- Space-like separation
- Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
- Heisenberg’s microscope experiment
- Quantum entanglement
- Bell’s inequalities
- Multiway system
- Coarse-graining
- Schrödinger equation
- Unitary operator
- Hermitian operator
- Conjugate transpose operation
- Time reversal
- Wavefunction collapse
- Quantum interference
- Quantum tunnelling

Stephen Wolfram’s books

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>It’s the way academics check each other’s research papers.

It ensures that only the good ones are published and prevents the bad ones from getting through.

Right?

Wrong.

Peer review does precisely the *opposite* of what you think it does.

It prevents the good papers from being published, and ensures that only the bad ones get through.

Peer review is suffocating science.

If we want to reverse the stagnation of science over the last 50 years, then we’ve got to get rid of peer review.

—

I highly recommend you read Adam Mastroianni’s splendid article The rise and fall of peer review

I first heard Adam’s ideas about peer review in his conversation Adam Mastroianni on Peer Review and the Academic Kitchen with Russ Roberts on EconTalk

Why has there been no progress in physics since 1973?

Scientific papers:

- The journal Nature began to require peer review in 1973
- Millions of academic articles are published every year
- Some scientists simply make stuff up
- Fraudulent studies make it into respectable journals like Science, Nature and The Lancet

Physicists:

- Isaac Newton
- Albert Einstein’s four papers published in 1905
- Max Planck’s principle that science progresses one funeral at a time

My projects:

Image of Adam Mastroianni by permission from Adam Mastroianni

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here

The full article is here

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>It’s the way academics check each other’s research papers.

It ensures that only the good ones are published and prevents the bad ones from getting through.

Right?

Wrong.

Peer review does precisely the *opposite* of what you think it does.

It prevents the good papers from being published, and ensures that only the bad ones get through.

Peer review is suffocating science.

If we want to reverse the stagnation of science over the last 50 years, then we’ve got to get rid of peer review.

—

I highly recommend you read Adam Mastroianni’s splendid article The rise and fall of peer review

I first heard Adam’s ideas about peer review in his conversation Adam Mastroianni on Peer Review and the Academic Kitchen with Russ Roberts on EconTalk

Why has there been no progress in physics since 1973?

Scientific papers:

- The journal Nature began to require peer review in 1973
- Millions of academic articles are published every year
- Some scientists simply make stuff up
- Fraudulent studies make it into respectable journals like Science, Nature and The Lancet

Physicists:

- Isaac Newton
- Albert Einstein’s four papers published in 1905
- Max Planck’s principle that science progresses one funeral at a time

My projects:

Image of Adam Mastroianni by permission from Adam Mastroianni

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here

The full article is here

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>It’s the way academics check each other’s research papers.

It ensures that only the good ones are published and prevents the bad ones from getting through.

Right?

Wrong.

Peer review does precisely the *opposite* of what you think it does.

It prevents the good papers from being published, and ensures that only the bad ones get through.

Peer review is suffocating science.

If we want to reverse the stagnation of science over the last 50 years, then we’ve got to get rid of peer review.

—

I highly recommend you read Adam Mastroianni’s splendid article The rise and fall of peer review

I first heard Adam’s ideas about peer review in his conversation Adam Mastroianni on Peer Review and the Academic Kitchen with Russ Roberts on EconTalk

Why has there been no progress in physics since 1973?

Scientific papers:

- The journal Nature began to require peer review in 1973
- Millions of academic articles are published every year
- Some scientists simply make stuff up
- Fraudulent studies make it into respectable journals like Science, Nature and The Lancet

Physicists:

- Isaac Newton
- Albert Einstein’s four papers published in 1905
- Max Planck’s principle that science progresses one funeral at a time

My projects:

Image of Adam Mastroianni by permission from Adam Mastroianni

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here

The full article is here

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>We start by talking about applying more than one rule to the hypergraph to create rulial multiway systems.

This takes us part way towards applying every possible rule, in other words, towards the ruliad.

We move on to the idea of measuring the complexity of a structure in terms of the minimum amount of information needed to express it.

Jonathan applies this idea to the ruliad, pointing out that it takes almost no information to express, since it encompasses all possible rules.

Since he believes, however, that there is *some* content to the universe – that it is *not* a tautalogy – this leads Jonathan to *reject* the idea of the ruliad.

We dig into *why* he has this intuition is that the universe is not a tautalogy.

Jonathan invokes theologians like John Duns Scotus, who promulgated the idea the the world is neither completely reducible nor completely irreducible.

He follows the scholastics in steering a middle path, suggesting that there’s enough content in the universe that it’s interesting, but not so much content that we can’t write down well-defined laws of nature.

This brings us, for the first time, to the role of the observer in the Wolfram model.

Again, Jonathan steers a middle path between placing the computational burden entirely on the *universe* and placing the computational burden entirely on the *observer*.

I find this 9-minute exposition fascinating. It gets to the heart of some of the philosophical differences between Jonathan Gorard and Stephen Wolfram, and to the nature of the universe and our role as observers.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People mentioned by Jonathan

Research mentioned by Jonathan

- Homotopies in Multiway (Non-Deterministic) Rewriting Systems as n-Fold Categories by Xerxes D. Arsiwalla, Jonathan Gorard, Hatem Elshatlawy
- Pregeometric Spaces from Wolfram Model Rewriting Systems as Homotopy Types by Xerxes D. Arsiwalla, Jonathan Gorard

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Rulial Multiway System
- ∞-category
- ∞-groupoid
- (∞,1)-topos
- Grothendieck’s homotopy hypothesis
- Algorithmic complexity theory
- Algorithmic information theory
- Kolmogorov complexity
- Einstein field equations
- Curvature invariant
- Qualia

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>We start by talking about applying more than one rule to the hypergraph to create rulial multiway systems.

This takes us part way towards applying every possible rule, in other words, towards the ruliad.

We move on to the idea of measuring the complexity of a structure in terms of the minimum amount of information needed to express it.

Jonathan applies this idea to the ruliad, pointing out that it takes almost no information to express, since it encompasses all possible rules.

Since he believes, however, that there is *some* content to the universe – that it is *not* a tautalogy – this leads Jonathan to *reject* the idea of the ruliad.

We dig into *why* he has this intuition is that the universe is not a tautalogy.

Jonathan invokes theologians like John Duns Scotus, who promulgated the idea the the world is neither completely reducible nor completely irreducible.

He follows the scholastics in steering a middle path, suggesting that there’s enough content in the universe that it’s interesting, but not so much content that we can’t write down well-defined laws of nature.

This brings us, for the first time, to the role of the observer in the Wolfram model.

Again, Jonathan steers a middle path between placing the computational burden entirely on the *universe* and placing the computational burden entirely on the *observer*.

I find this 9-minute exposition fascinating. It gets to the heart of some of the philosophical differences between Jonathan Gorard and Stephen Wolfram, and to the nature of the universe and our role as observers.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People mentioned by Jonathan

Research mentioned by Jonathan

- Homotopies in Multiway (Non-Deterministic) Rewriting Systems as n-Fold Categories by Xerxes D. Arsiwalla, Jonathan Gorard, Hatem Elshatlawy
- Pregeometric Spaces from Wolfram Model Rewriting Systems as Homotopy Types by Xerxes D. Arsiwalla, Jonathan Gorard

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Rulial Multiway System
- ∞-category
- ∞-groupoid
- (∞,1)-topos
- Grothendieck’s homotopy hypothesis
- Algorithmic complexity theory
- Algorithmic information theory
- Kolmogorov complexity
- Einstein field equations
- Curvature invariant
- Qualia

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>We start by talking about applying more than one rule to the hypergraph to create rulial multiway systems.

This takes us part way towards applying every possible rule, in other words, towards the ruliad.

We move on to the idea of measuring the complexity of a structure in terms of the minimum amount of information needed to express it.

Jonathan applies this idea to the ruliad, pointing out that it takes almost no information to express, since it encompasses all possible rules.

Since he believes, however, that there is *some* content to the universe – that it is *not* a tautalogy – this leads Jonathan to *reject* the idea of the ruliad.

We dig into *why* he has this intuition is that the universe is not a tautalogy.

Jonathan invokes theologians like John Duns Scotus, who promulgated the idea the the world is neither completely reducible nor completely irreducible.

He follows the scholastics in steering a middle path, suggesting that there’s enough content in the universe that it’s interesting, but not so much content that we can’t write down well-defined laws of nature.

This brings us, for the first time, to the role of the observer in the Wolfram model.

Again, Jonathan steers a middle path between placing the computational burden entirely on the *universe* and placing the computational burden entirely on the *observer*.

I find this 9-minute exposition fascinating. It gets to the heart of some of the philosophical differences between Jonathan Gorard and Stephen Wolfram, and to the nature of the universe and our role as observers.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People mentioned by Jonathan

Research mentioned by Jonathan

- Homotopies in Multiway (Non-Deterministic) Rewriting Systems as n-Fold Categories by Xerxes D. Arsiwalla, Jonathan Gorard, Hatem Elshatlawy
- Pregeometric Spaces from Wolfram Model Rewriting Systems as Homotopy Types by Xerxes D. Arsiwalla, Jonathan Gorard

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Rulial Multiway System
- ∞-category
- ∞-groupoid
- (∞,1)-topos
- Grothendieck’s homotopy hypothesis
- Algorithmic complexity theory
- Algorithmic information theory
- Kolmogorov complexity
- Einstein field equations
- Curvature invariant
- Qualia

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>The hypergraph kinda *looks* like space, and, for some rules, it kinda *looks* like it’s three-dimensional.

But our universe isn’t just *empty* three-dimensional space.

It’s *mostly* empty space, but there are also particles moving *through* that space: photons, neutrinos, electrons, quarks.

Sometimes, these particles interact, annihilating each other and producing new particles.

If Wolfram Physics is to be a successful model of our universe, it must, of course, model these elementary particles and their interactions.

So where are the particles in the hypergraph?

What *is* a particle in Wolfram’s universe?

—

Animations:

- Thanks to Alan Dewar for permission to use his excellent implementation of Conway’s Game of Life for many of the animations in the video
- Thanks also to Chris Rowett for permission to use his Life Viewer, a beautiful implementation of Conway’s Game of Life, which I used for the greyship animation in the video and image in the thumbnail
- Another implementation of Conway’s Game of Life, which reproduces the Life Lexicon from ConwayLife.com, is at playgameoflife.com

Sources:

- Talking of ConwayLife.com, that’s another incredible resource for information on Conway’s Game of Life

Tools:

- I created an RLE to text converter to convert Run Length Encoded patterns to plain text format

Images:

- John H Conway 2005 by Thane Plambeck licensed under CC BY 2.0

Sounds:

- Crickets choir by Serg Childed licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>The hypergraph kinda *looks* like space, and, for some rules, it kinda *looks* like it’s three-dimensional.

But our universe isn’t just *empty* three-dimensional space.

It’s *mostly* empty space, but there are also particles moving *through* that space: photons, neutrinos, electrons, quarks.

Sometimes, these particles interact, annihilating each other and producing new particles.

If Wolfram Physics is to be a successful model of our universe, it must, of course, model these elementary particles and their interactions.

So where are the particles in the hypergraph?

What *is* a particle in Wolfram’s universe?

—

Animations:

- Thanks to Alan Dewar for permission to use his excellent implementation of Conway’s Game of Life for many of the animations in the video
- Thanks also to Chris Rowett for permission to use his Life Viewer, a beautiful implementation of Conway’s Game of Life, which I used for the greyship animation in the video and image in the thumbnail
- Another implementation of Conway’s Game of Life, which reproduces the Life Lexicon from ConwayLife.com, is at playgameoflife.com

Sources:

- Talking of ConwayLife.com, that’s another incredible resource for information on Conway’s Game of Life

Tools:

- I created an RLE to text converter to convert Run Length Encoded patterns to plain text format

Images:

- John H Conway 2005 by Thane Plambeck licensed under CC BY 2.0

Sounds:

- Crickets choir by Serg Childed licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>The hypergraph kinda *looks* like space, and, for some rules, it kinda *looks* like it’s three-dimensional.

But our universe isn’t just *empty* three-dimensional space.

It’s *mostly* empty space, but there are also particles moving *through* that space: photons, neutrinos, electrons, quarks.

Sometimes, these particles interact, annihilating each other and producing new particles.

If Wolfram Physics is to be a successful model of our universe, it must, of course, model these elementary particles and their interactions.

So where are the particles in the hypergraph?

What *is* a particle in Wolfram’s universe?

—

Animations:

- Thanks to Alan Dewar for permission to use his excellent implementation of Conway’s Game of Life for many of the animations in the video
- Thanks also to Chris Rowett for permission to use his Life Viewer, a beautiful implementation of Conway’s Game of Life, which I used for the greyship animation in the video and image in the thumbnail
- Another implementation of Conway’s Game of Life, which reproduces the Life Lexicon from ConwayLife.com, is at playgameoflife.com

Sources:

- Talking of ConwayLife.com, that’s another incredible resource for information on Conway’s Game of Life

Tools:

- I created an RLE to text converter to convert Run Length Encoded patterns to plain text format

Images:

- John H Conway 2005 by Thane Plambeck licensed under CC BY 2.0

Sounds:

- Crickets choir by Serg Childed licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>More recently, however, Wolfram has promoted the idea of the *ruliad*, the application of *every possible* rule to the hypergraph.

So I asked Jonathan Gorard, who was instrumental in the founding of the Wolfram Physics Project, whether *all* rules might be applied to generate our universe, or whether he was searching for one rule to rule them all.

—

Stephen Wolfram’s 2010 TED talk in which he said he was committed “to see if within this decade we can finally hold in our hands the rule for our universe”.

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Equivalence class
- Congruence class
- Lagrangian mechanics
- Hamiltonian mechanics
- Teleology
- Ontology
- Axiomatic view of mathematics – top-down
- Constructivist view of mathematics – bottom-up
- Domain of discourse
- Intuitionism
- Algorithmic information theory

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>More recently, however, Wolfram has promoted the idea of the *ruliad*, the application of *every possible* rule to the hypergraph.

So I asked Jonathan Gorard, who was instrumental in the founding of the Wolfram Physics Project, whether *all* rules might be applied to generate our universe, or whether he was searching for one rule to rule them all.

—

Stephen Wolfram’s 2010 TED talk in which he said he was committed “to see if within this decade we can finally hold in our hands the rule for our universe”.

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Equivalence class
- Congruence class
- Lagrangian mechanics
- Hamiltonian mechanics
- Teleology
- Ontology
- Axiomatic view of mathematics – top-down
- Constructivist view of mathematics – bottom-up
- Domain of discourse
- Intuitionism
- Algorithmic information theory

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>More recently, however, Wolfram has promoted the idea of the *ruliad*, the application of *every possible* rule to the hypergraph.

So I asked Jonathan Gorard, who was instrumental in the founding of the Wolfram Physics Project, whether *all* rules might be applied to generate our universe, or whether he was searching for one rule to rule them all.

—

Stephen Wolfram’s 2010 TED talk in which he said he was committed “to see if within this decade we can finally hold in our hands the rule for our universe”.

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Equivalence class
- Congruence class
- Lagrangian mechanics
- Hamiltonian mechanics
- Teleology
- Ontology
- Axiomatic view of mathematics – top-down
- Constructivist view of mathematics – bottom-up
- Domain of discourse
- Intuitionism
- Algorithmic information theory

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Whenever any of the most important prerequisites to Wolfram Physics were happening – quantum mechanics, Gödel’s theorem, Turing machines, electronic computers, cellular automata – John von Neumann always seemed to be there.

How did John von Neumann always come to be in the right place at the right time to contribute to some of the most significant developments in physics, mathematics and computation history?

For this, another high-budget, big-hair episode of The Last Theory, I flew all the way to Budapest, where John von Neumann was born, to point to a plaque and get some answers.

—

I took inspiration and information for this episode from Ananyo Bhattacharya’s biography of John von Neumann: *The Man from the Future*

People

- John von Neumann
- Albert Einstein
- Erwin Schrödinger
- Werner Heisenberg
- Kurt Gödel
- Alan Turing
- Seth Neddermeyer
- J. Presper Eckert
- John Mauchly
- Stephen Wolfram
- Jonathan Gorard
- Max Piskunov
- Stanisław Ulam
- Father Strickland

Concepts

- Hilbert space
- Gödel’s incompleteness theorems
- Universal Turing machine
- Turing’s proof
- Von Neumann architecture
- The Manhattan Project
- Cellular automata

Computers

Images

- Image of John von Neumann from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which rather pointlessly requires that this rather ponderous statement be reproduced here: “Unless otherwise indicated, this information has been authored by an employee or employees of the Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), operator of the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. Government has rights to use, reproduce, and distribute this information. The public may copy and use this information without charge, provided that this Notice and any statement of authorship are reproduced on all copies. Neither the Government nor LANS makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any liability or responsibility for the use of this information.”
- Turing Machine Model Davey 2012 by Rocky Acosta licensed under CC BY 3.0
- Animation. 1200 iterations of the ‘Rule 110’ Automata by Mr. Heretic licenced under CC BY-SA 3.0
- Bundesarchiv Bild183-R57262, Werner Heisenberg by an unknown author (Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-R57262) licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 DE
- Turing in 1935 by Tomipelegrin licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0
- Gospers glider gun by Lucas Vieira licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Whenever any of the most important prerequisites to Wolfram Physics were happening – quantum mechanics, Gödel’s theorem, Turing machines, electronic computers, cellular automata – John von Neumann always seemed to be there.

How did John von Neumann always come to be in the right place at the right time to contribute to some of the most significant developments in physics, mathematics and computation history?

For this, another high-budget, big-hair episode of The Last Theory, I flew all the way to Budapest, where John von Neumann was born, to point to a plaque and get some answers.

—

I took inspiration and information for this episode from Ananyo Bhattacharya’s biography of John von Neumann: *The Man from the Future*

People

- John von Neumann
- Albert Einstein
- Erwin Schrödinger
- Werner Heisenberg
- Kurt Gödel
- Alan Turing
- Seth Neddermeyer
- J. Presper Eckert
- John Mauchly
- Stephen Wolfram
- Jonathan Gorard
- Max Piskunov
- Stanisław Ulam
- Father Strickland

Concepts

- Hilbert space
- Gödel’s incompleteness theorems
- Universal Turing machine
- Turing’s proof
- Von Neumann architecture
- The Manhattan Project
- Cellular automata

Computers

Images

- Image of John von Neumann from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which rather pointlessly requires that this rather ponderous statement be reproduced here: “Unless otherwise indicated, this information has been authored by an employee or employees of the Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), operator of the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. Government has rights to use, reproduce, and distribute this information. The public may copy and use this information without charge, provided that this Notice and any statement of authorship are reproduced on all copies. Neither the Government nor LANS makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any liability or responsibility for the use of this information.”
- Turing Machine Model Davey 2012 by Rocky Acosta licensed under CC BY 3.0
- Animation. 1200 iterations of the ‘Rule 110’ Automata by Mr. Heretic licenced under CC BY-SA 3.0
- Bundesarchiv Bild183-R57262, Werner Heisenberg by an unknown author (Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-R57262) licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 DE
- Turing in 1935 by Tomipelegrin licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0
- Gospers glider gun by Lucas Vieira licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Whenever any of the most important prerequisites to Wolfram Physics were happening – quantum mechanics, Gödel’s theorem, Turing machines, electronic computers, cellular automata – John von Neumann always seemed to be there.

How did John von Neumann always come to be in the right place at the right time to contribute to some of the most significant developments in physics, mathematics and computation history?

For this, another high-budget, big-hair episode of The Last Theory, I flew all the way to Budapest, where John von Neumann was born, to point to a plaque and get some answers.

—

I took inspiration and information for this episode from Ananyo Bhattacharya’s biography of John von Neumann: *The Man from the Future*

People

- John von Neumann
- Albert Einstein
- Erwin Schrödinger
- Werner Heisenberg
- Kurt Gödel
- Alan Turing
- Seth Neddermeyer
- J. Presper Eckert
- John Mauchly
- Stephen Wolfram
- Jonathan Gorard
- Max Piskunov
- Stanisław Ulam
- Father Strickland

Concepts

- Hilbert space
- Gödel’s incompleteness theorems
- Universal Turing machine
- Turing’s proof
- Von Neumann architecture
- The Manhattan Project
- Cellular automata

Computers

Images

- Image of John von Neumann from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which rather pointlessly requires that this rather ponderous statement be reproduced here: “Unless otherwise indicated, this information has been authored by an employee or employees of the Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), operator of the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. Government has rights to use, reproduce, and distribute this information. The public may copy and use this information without charge, provided that this Notice and any statement of authorship are reproduced on all copies. Neither the Government nor LANS makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any liability or responsibility for the use of this information.”
- Turing Machine Model Davey 2012 by Rocky Acosta licensed under CC BY 3.0
- Animation. 1200 iterations of the ‘Rule 110’ Automata by Mr. Heretic licenced under CC BY-SA 3.0
- Bundesarchiv Bild183-R57262, Werner Heisenberg by an unknown author (Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-R57262) licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 DE
- Turing in 1935 by Tomipelegrin licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0
- Gospers glider gun by Lucas Vieira licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

—

The Last Theory is hosted by Mark Jeffery, founder of the Open Web Mind

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Some of these rules generate *interesting* universes that are complex and connected, some of these rules generate *plausible* universes that look a little like our own, and others... go nowhere.

In this excerpt from my conversation with Jonathan Gorard, I ask him how to find rules of Wolfram Physics that are both interesting *and* plausible.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

The paper referred to by Jonathan

- Algorithmic Causal Sets and the Wolfram Model by Jonathan Gorard

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Causal invariance
- Manifold
- Causal graph
- Space-like separation
- Causal cone
- Dimensionality
- Curvature
- Discrete differential operators
- Discrete Laplacian

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Some of these rules generate *interesting* universes that are complex and connected, some of these rules generate *plausible* universes that look a little like our own, and others... go nowhere.

In this excerpt from my conversation with Jonathan Gorard, I ask him how to find rules of Wolfram Physics that are both interesting *and* plausible.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

The paper referred to by Jonathan

- Algorithmic Causal Sets and the Wolfram Model by Jonathan Gorard

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Causal invariance
- Manifold
- Causal graph
- Space-like separation
- Causal cone
- Dimensionality
- Curvature
- Discrete differential operators
- Discrete Laplacian

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Some of these rules generate *interesting* universes that are complex and connected, some of these rules generate *plausible* universes that look a little like our own, and others... go nowhere.

In this excerpt from my conversation with Jonathan Gorard, I ask him how to find rules of Wolfram Physics that are both interesting *and* plausible.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

The paper referred to by Jonathan

- Algorithmic Causal Sets and the Wolfram Model by Jonathan Gorard

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Causal invariance
- Manifold
- Causal graph
- Space-like separation
- Causal cone
- Dimensionality
- Curvature
- Discrete differential operators
- Discrete Laplacian

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>From 1905 to 1973, we made extraordinary progress probing the mysteries of the universe: special relativity, general relativity, quantum mechanics, the structure of the atom, the structure of the nucleus, enumerating the elementary particles.

Then, in 1973, this extraordinary progress... stopped.

I mean, where are the fundamental discoveries in the last 50 years equal to general relativity or quantum mechanics?

Why has there been no progress in physics since 1973?

For this high-budget, big-hair episode of The Last Theory, I flew all the way to Oxford to tell you why progress *stopped*, and why it’s set to *start* again: why progress in physics might be about to accelerate in the early *twenty-first* century in a way we haven’t seen since those heady days of the early *twentieth* century.

—

Eric Weinstein’s claims that there has been no progress in physics since 1973:

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>From 1905 to 1973, we made extraordinary progress probing the mysteries of the universe: special relativity, general relativity, quantum mechanics, the structure of the atom, the structure of the nucleus, enumerating the elementary particles.

Then, in 1973, this extraordinary progress... stopped.

I mean, where are the fundamental discoveries in the last 50 years equal to general relativity or quantum mechanics?

Why has there been no progress in physics since 1973?

For this high-budget, big-hair episode of The Last Theory, I flew all the way to Oxford to tell you why progress *stopped*, and why it’s set to *start* again: why progress in physics might be about to accelerate in the early *twenty-first* century in a way we haven’t seen since those heady days of the early *twentieth* century.

—

Eric Weinstein’s claims that there has been no progress in physics since 1973:

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>From 1905 to 1973, we made extraordinary progress probing the mysteries of the universe: special relativity, general relativity, quantum mechanics, the structure of the atom, the structure of the nucleus, enumerating the elementary particles.

Then, in 1973, this extraordinary progress... stopped.

I mean, where are the fundamental discoveries in the last 50 years equal to general relativity or quantum mechanics?

Why has there been no progress in physics since 1973?

For this high-budget, big-hair episode of The Last Theory, I flew all the way to Oxford to tell you why progress *stopped*, and why it’s set to *start* again: why progress in physics might be about to accelerate in the early *twenty-first* century in a way we haven’t seen since those heady days of the early *twentieth* century.

—

Eric Weinstein’s claims that there has been no progress in physics since 1973:

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>According to Wolfram MathWorld, if a rule is causally invariant, then “no matter which evolution is chosen for a system, the history is the same, in the sense that the same events occur and they have the same causal relationships.”

Causal invariance is one of the assumptions Jonathan Gorard needs to make to derive the equations of General Relativity from the hypergraph. *That’s* how crucial it is!

Given that not *every* rule of Wolfram Physics is causally invariant, I asked Jonathan how we find the ones that *are*.

Here, in another excerpt from our recent conversation, is his answer: how to find causally invariant rules.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People and concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Stephen Wolfram
- Max Piskunov
- Causal invariance
- Wolfram Function Repository
- Wolfram Engine
- Wolfram Mathematica
- Wolfram Programming Lab
- CausalInvariantQ
- TotalCausalInvariantQ
- Associative
- Commutative
- Automated theorem proving
- Undecidable problem

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>According to Wolfram MathWorld, if a rule is causally invariant, then “no matter which evolution is chosen for a system, the history is the same, in the sense that the same events occur and they have the same causal relationships.”

Causal invariance is one of the assumptions Jonathan Gorard needs to make to derive the equations of General Relativity from the hypergraph. *That’s* how crucial it is!

Given that not *every* rule of Wolfram Physics is causally invariant, I asked Jonathan how we find the ones that *are*.

Here, in another excerpt from our recent conversation, is his answer: how to find causally invariant rules.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People and concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Stephen Wolfram
- Max Piskunov
- Causal invariance
- Wolfram Function Repository
- Wolfram Engine
- Wolfram Mathematica
- Wolfram Programming Lab
- CausalInvariantQ
- TotalCausalInvariantQ
- Associative
- Commutative
- Automated theorem proving
- Undecidable problem

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>According to Wolfram MathWorld, if a rule is causally invariant, then “no matter which evolution is chosen for a system, the history is the same, in the sense that the same events occur and they have the same causal relationships.”

Causal invariance is one of the assumptions Jonathan Gorard needs to make to derive the equations of General Relativity from the hypergraph. *That’s* how crucial it is!

Given that not *every* rule of Wolfram Physics is causally invariant, I asked Jonathan how we find the ones that *are*.

Here, in another excerpt from our recent conversation, is his answer: how to find causally invariant rules.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People and concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Stephen Wolfram
- Max Piskunov
- Causal invariance
- Wolfram Function Repository
- Wolfram Engine
- Wolfram Mathematica
- Wolfram Programming Lab
- CausalInvariantQ
- TotalCausalInvariantQ
- Associative
- Commutative
- Automated theorem proving
- Undecidable problem

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Some of rules in the Wolfram model give rise to fascinating universes.

Today, I’m going to show you a few rules that seem to fabricate space itself in much the same way as knitting needles might fabricate a blanket.

And if you think that knitting is a far-fetched analogy, just wait until you see my animations!

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Some of rules in the Wolfram model give rise to fascinating universes.

Today, I’m going to show you a few rules that seem to fabricate space itself in much the same way as knitting needles might fabricate a blanket.

And if you think that knitting is a far-fetched analogy, just wait until you see my animations!

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Some of rules in the Wolfram model give rise to fascinating universes.

Today, I’m going to show you a few rules that seem to fabricate space itself in much the same way as knitting needles might fabricate a blanket.

And if you think that knitting is a far-fetched analogy, just wait until you see my animations!

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>But his animations aren’t mere mathematical abstractions. He has also applied his geometrical skills to animating the hypergraph of Wolfram Physics, in such a way that it *doesn’t* jump from frame to frame.

In this second part of my recent conversation with Dugan, we talk about his extending spring-electrical embedding into an additional time dimension...

...and we show some of the beautifully smooth animations that come out of it.

—

Dugan Hammock

- Dugan Hammock’s videos on YouTube
- Dugan Hammock on Twitter
- Dugan Hammock at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Plotting the evolution of a Wolfram Model in 3-dimensions
- Temporally coherent animations of the evolution of Wolfram Models

People and concepts mentioned by Dugan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>But his animations aren’t mere mathematical abstractions. He has also applied his geometrical skills to animating the hypergraph of Wolfram Physics, in such a way that it *doesn’t* jump from frame to frame.

In this second part of my recent conversation with Dugan, we talk about his extending spring-electrical embedding into an additional time dimension...

...and we show some of the beautifully smooth animations that come out of it.

—

Dugan Hammock

- Dugan Hammock’s videos on YouTube
- Dugan Hammock on Twitter
- Dugan Hammock at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Plotting the evolution of a Wolfram Model in 3-dimensions
- Temporally coherent animations of the evolution of Wolfram Models

People and concepts mentioned by Dugan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>But his animations aren’t mere mathematical abstractions. He has also applied his geometrical skills to animating the hypergraph of Wolfram Physics, in such a way that it *doesn’t* jump from frame to frame.

In this second part of my recent conversation with Dugan, we talk about his extending spring-electrical embedding into an additional time dimension...

...and we show some of the beautifully smooth animations that come out of it.

—

Dugan Hammock

- Dugan Hammock’s videos on YouTube
- Dugan Hammock on Twitter
- Dugan Hammock at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Plotting the evolution of a Wolfram Model in 3-dimensions
- Temporally coherent animations of the evolution of Wolfram Models

People and concepts mentioned by Dugan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>So I really wanted to hear Jonathan Gorard’s take on it.

In this excerpt from our conversation, Jonathan addresses the differences between causal invariance and confluence.

*Causal invariance* means that regardless of the order in which a rule is applied to the hypergraph, the same events occur, with the same causal relationships between them.

*Confluence*, on the other hand, is the coming-together of different branches of the multiway graph.

Jonathan explores different ways we might determine whether two nodes, two edges or two hypergraphs are the *same*, and explains that if we identify nodes and edges according to their *causal histories*, then causal invariance and confluence become the same idea.

I’ve found myself listening to Jonathan’s explanation of causal invariance over and over to make sense of it, but it’s one of the areas where I’m convinced Jonathan has a unique contribution to make.

—

Jonathan Gorard

• Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project

• Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University

• Jonathan Gorard on Twitter

• The Centre for Applied Compositionality

• The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

• Causal invariance

• Multiway system

• Causal structure

• Causal Set Theory

• Directed acyclic graph

• Isomorphic

• Space-like separation

• Simultaneity and simultaneity surfaces in relativity

• Lorentz invariance

• Poincaré invariance

• Conformal invariance

• Diffeomorphism invariance

• General covariance

• Confluence

• Church-Rosser Property

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>So I really wanted to hear Jonathan Gorard’s take on it.

In this excerpt from our conversation, Jonathan addresses the differences between causal invariance and confluence.

*Causal invariance* means that regardless of the order in which a rule is applied to the hypergraph, the same events occur, with the same causal relationships between them.

*Confluence*, on the other hand, is the coming-together of different branches of the multiway graph.

Jonathan explores different ways we might determine whether two nodes, two edges or two hypergraphs are the *same*, and explains that if we identify nodes and edges according to their *causal histories*, then causal invariance and confluence become the same idea.

I’ve found myself listening to Jonathan’s explanation of causal invariance over and over to make sense of it, but it’s one of the areas where I’m convinced Jonathan has a unique contribution to make.

—

Jonathan Gorard

• Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project

• Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University

• Jonathan Gorard on Twitter

• The Centre for Applied Compositionality

• The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

• Causal invariance

• Multiway system

• Causal structure

• Causal Set Theory

• Directed acyclic graph

• Isomorphic

• Space-like separation

• Simultaneity and simultaneity surfaces in relativity

• Lorentz invariance

• Poincaré invariance

• Conformal invariance

• Diffeomorphism invariance

• General covariance

• Confluence

• Church-Rosser Property

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>So I really wanted to hear Jonathan Gorard’s take on it.

In this excerpt from our conversation, Jonathan addresses the differences between causal invariance and confluence.

*Causal invariance* means that regardless of the order in which a rule is applied to the hypergraph, the same events occur, with the same causal relationships between them.

*Confluence*, on the other hand, is the coming-together of different branches of the multiway graph.

Jonathan explores different ways we might determine whether two nodes, two edges or two hypergraphs are the *same*, and explains that if we identify nodes and edges according to their *causal histories*, then causal invariance and confluence become the same idea.

I’ve found myself listening to Jonathan’s explanation of causal invariance over and over to make sense of it, but it’s one of the areas where I’m convinced Jonathan has a unique contribution to make.

—

Jonathan Gorard

• Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project

• Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University

• Jonathan Gorard on Twitter

• The Centre for Applied Compositionality

• The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

• Causal invariance

• Multiway system

• Causal structure

• Causal Set Theory

• Directed acyclic graph

• Isomorphic

• Space-like separation

• Simultaneity and simultaneity surfaces in relativity

• Lorentz invariance

• Poincaré invariance

• Conformal invariance

• Diffeomorphism invariance

• General covariance

• Confluence

• Church-Rosser Property

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>They can play a crucial role in the evolution of graphs and hypergraphs... which means that they might play a crucial role in the evolution of the universe itself.

Loops and self-loops *matter*, because including them in our models reduces the number of arbitrary assumptions we need to make in Wolfram Physics, making it more *complete*.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>They can play a crucial role in the evolution of graphs and hypergraphs... which means that they might play a crucial role in the evolution of the universe itself.

Loops and self-loops *matter*, because including them in our models reduces the number of arbitrary assumptions we need to make in Wolfram Physics, making it more *complete*.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>They can play a crucial role in the evolution of graphs and hypergraphs... which means that they might play a crucial role in the evolution of the universe itself.

Loops and self-loops *matter*, because including them in our models reduces the number of arbitrary assumptions we need to make in Wolfram Physics, making it more *complete*.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>As Jonathan Gorard mentioned in our recent conversation on How to draw the hypergraph in Wolfram Physics, Dugan has worked on plotting the evolution of the hypergraph over time.

We get into that in the second part of our conversation, but in this first part, I get to know Dugan as a mathematician and artist.

Enjoy his amazing animations of three-dimensional cross-sections through four-dimensional hypershapes!

—

Dugan Hammock

- Dugan Hammock’s videos on YouTube
- Dugan Hammock on Twitter
- Dugan Hammock at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Plotting the evolution of a Wolfram Model in 3-dimensions
- Temporally coherent animations of the evolution of Wolfram Models

People mentioned by Dugan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>As Jonathan Gorard mentioned in our recent conversation on How to draw the hypergraph in Wolfram Physics, Dugan has worked on plotting the evolution of the hypergraph over time.

We get into that in the second part of our conversation, but in this first part, I get to know Dugan as a mathematician and artist.

Enjoy his amazing animations of three-dimensional cross-sections through four-dimensional hypershapes!

—

Dugan Hammock

- Dugan Hammock’s videos on YouTube
- Dugan Hammock on Twitter
- Dugan Hammock at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Plotting the evolution of a Wolfram Model in 3-dimensions
- Temporally coherent animations of the evolution of Wolfram Models

People mentioned by Dugan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>As Jonathan Gorard mentioned in our recent conversation on How to draw the hypergraph in Wolfram Physics, Dugan has worked on plotting the evolution of the hypergraph over time.

We get into that in the second part of our conversation, but in this first part, I get to know Dugan as a mathematician and artist.

Enjoy his amazing animations of three-dimensional cross-sections through four-dimensional hypershapes!

—

Dugan Hammock

- Dugan Hammock’s videos on YouTube
- Dugan Hammock on Twitter
- Dugan Hammock at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Plotting the evolution of a Wolfram Model in 3-dimensions
- Temporally coherent animations of the evolution of Wolfram Models

People mentioned by Dugan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>

I used to think that our existing theories of physics, such as general relativity and quantum mechanics, were examples of computational *reducibility*: shortcuts that allow us to make higher-level generalizations about how the application of rules to the hypergraph gives rise to our universe.

Jonathan Gorard used to think this, too.

But it turns out that over the last couple of years, he has changed his mind on this quite radically.

General relativity and quantum mechanics, he now thinks, aren’t *examples* of computational *reducibility*, they’re *consequences* of computational *irreducibility*.

I truly appreciated this part of our conversation, because it radically changed my mind, too, about this crucial concept in Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Partition function
- Boltzmann equation
- Molecular chaos assumption
- Ergodicity
- Distribution function
- Chapman-Enskog expansion
- Stress tensor
- Navier-Stokes equations
- Euler equations

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>

I used to think that our existing theories of physics, such as general relativity and quantum mechanics, were examples of computational *reducibility*: shortcuts that allow us to make higher-level generalizations about how the application of rules to the hypergraph gives rise to our universe.

Jonathan Gorard used to think this, too.

But it turns out that over the last couple of years, he has changed his mind on this quite radically.

General relativity and quantum mechanics, he now thinks, aren’t *examples* of computational *reducibility*, they’re *consequences* of computational *irreducibility*.

I truly appreciated this part of our conversation, because it radically changed my mind, too, about this crucial concept in Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Partition function
- Boltzmann equation
- Molecular chaos assumption
- Ergodicity
- Distribution function
- Chapman-Enskog expansion
- Stress tensor
- Navier-Stokes equations
- Euler equations

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>

I used to think that our existing theories of physics, such as general relativity and quantum mechanics, were examples of computational *reducibility*: shortcuts that allow us to make higher-level generalizations about how the application of rules to the hypergraph gives rise to our universe.

Jonathan Gorard used to think this, too.

But it turns out that over the last couple of years, he has changed his mind on this quite radically.

General relativity and quantum mechanics, he now thinks, aren’t *examples* of computational *reducibility*, they’re *consequences* of computational *irreducibility*.

I truly appreciated this part of our conversation, because it radically changed my mind, too, about this crucial concept in Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Partition function
- Boltzmann equation
- Molecular chaos assumption
- Ergodicity
- Distribution function
- Chapman-Enskog expansion
- Stress tensor
- Navier-Stokes equations
- Euler equations

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>What’s *beyond* the hypergraph?

And what’s *between* the nodes and edges of the hypergraph?

There’s a simple answer to this question.

Nothing.

There’s *nothing* beyond the hypergraph.

There’s *nothing* beyond the universe.

But it’s not a very effective answer.

So here’s a deeper response to the age-old question:

What’s beyond the universe?

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>What’s *beyond* the hypergraph?

And what’s *between* the nodes and edges of the hypergraph?

There’s a simple answer to this question.

Nothing.

There’s *nothing* beyond the hypergraph.

There’s *nothing* beyond the universe.

But it’s not a very effective answer.

So here’s a deeper response to the age-old question:

What’s beyond the universe?

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>So if we want to *see* the universe, we need only *draw* the hypergraph.

The question is: *how?*

The nodes and edges of the hypergraph are determined by the rules of Wolfram Physics. But how we *draw* those nodes and edges is *not* determined.

The drawing of the hypergraph is *not* the universe, it’s just a way of *visualizing* the universe.

So I asked Jonathan Gorard how we might decide where to position the nodes and edges when we draw the hypergraph, so that we can see what’s *really* going on in Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People mentioned by Jonathan

- Charles Pooh
- Dugan Hammock
- Plotting the evolution of a Wolfram Model in 3-dimensions by Dugan Hammock
- Temporally coherent animations of the evolution of Wolfram Models by Dugan Hammock

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>So if we want to *see* the universe, we need only *draw* the hypergraph.

The question is: *how?*

The nodes and edges of the hypergraph are determined by the rules of Wolfram Physics. But how we *draw* those nodes and edges is *not* determined.

The drawing of the hypergraph is *not* the universe, it’s just a way of *visualizing* the universe.

So I asked Jonathan Gorard how we might decide where to position the nodes and edges when we draw the hypergraph, so that we can see what’s *really* going on in Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People mentioned by Jonathan

- Charles Pooh
- Dugan Hammock
- Plotting the evolution of a Wolfram Model in 3-dimensions by Dugan Hammock
- Temporally coherent animations of the evolution of Wolfram Models by Dugan Hammock

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>There’s a straightforward answer to that question.

It’s the point in the evolution of the universe where the hypergraph goes from nothing to something.

It’s the start of the explosion that eventually yields the uncountable particles, planets, stars and galaxies of our universe.

So that’s pretty straightforward, isn’t it?

Well, yes, except that there’s one phrase above that demands further explanation: *nothing to something*.

How does the universe go from *nothing* to *something*?

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>There’s a straightforward answer to that question.

It’s the point in the evolution of the universe where the hypergraph goes from nothing to something.

It’s the start of the explosion that eventually yields the uncountable particles, planets, stars and galaxies of our universe.

So that’s pretty straightforward, isn’t it?

Well, yes, except that there’s one phrase above that demands further explanation: *nothing to something*.

How does the universe go from *nothing* to *something*?

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Does Wolfram Physics really need *hypergraphs*?

Or could it based on *graphs* instead?

Jonathan Gorard shares some interesting insights into the evolution of Stephen Wolfram’s model for a fundamental theory of physics.

Wolfram started with trivalent graphs, in which each edge joins *two* nodes, and each node has *three* edges.

But when he ran into issues implementing simulations using these simple *graphs*, he solved the problem by graduating to *hypergraphs*, in which each *hyperedge* can join any number of nodes, and each node can have any number of *hyperedges*.

Here’s how hypergraphs, rather than graphs, came to be the basis of Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Does Wolfram Physics really need *hypergraphs*?

Or could it based on *graphs* instead?

Jonathan Gorard shares some interesting insights into the evolution of Stephen Wolfram’s model for a fundamental theory of physics.

Wolfram started with trivalent graphs, in which each edge joins *two* nodes, and each node has *three* edges.

But when he ran into issues implementing simulations using these simple *graphs*, he solved the problem by graduating to *hypergraphs*, in which each *hyperedge* can join any number of nodes, and each node can have any number of *hyperedges*.

Here’s how hypergraphs, rather than graphs, came to be the basis of Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>How am I going to thank you for reading, listening, watching and subscribing?

Well, by bringing you *more* Wolfram Physics in the New Year, that’s how.

Here are 7 directions I want to take The Last Theory in 2023.

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>How am I going to thank you for reading, listening, watching and subscribing?

Well, by bringing you *more* Wolfram Physics in the New Year, that’s how.

Here are 7 directions I want to take The Last Theory in 2023.

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Why?

What is it about hypergraphs that might make them a better model of the universe than, say, strings of characters, or cellular automata, or Turing machines?

When I asked Jonathan Gorard this question, he gave an answer that was deeply insightful.

It’s such a core question, so fundamental to why we should take the Wolfram model seriously, that I’ve listened to Jonathan’s answer over and over.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People and Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Roger Penrose
- Rafael Sorkin
- Tommaso Bolognesi
- Causal Set Theory
- Hasse diagram
- Riemannian distance
- Strings (of characters)
- Cellular automata
- Turing machines
- Lorentz invariance
- General covariance

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Why?

What is it about hypergraphs that might make them a better model of the universe than, say, strings of characters, or cellular automata, or Turing machines?

When I asked Jonathan Gorard this question, he gave an answer that was deeply insightful.

It’s such a core question, so fundamental to why we should take the Wolfram model seriously, that I’ve listened to Jonathan’s answer over and over.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People and Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Roger Penrose
- Rafael Sorkin
- Tommaso Bolognesi
- Causal Set Theory
- Hasse diagram
- Riemannian distance
- Strings (of characters)
- Cellular automata
- Turing machines
- Lorentz invariance
- General covariance

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>If Stephen Wolfram is right, from now on, our most fundamental theories of physics may be *computational*.

This shift from mathematics to computation feels to me like a scientific revolution.

Recently, I asked Jonathan Gorard, who was instrumental in the founding of The Wolfram Physics Project, whether it feels to him, too, like a scientific revolution.

“I *think* so,” he said. “I mean, it’s a strong statement, but I don’t think it’ll end up being too inaccurate.”

(If you want to check out that part of our conversation, you can listen here or watch here.)

Here’s why, in my mind, Wolfram Physics is the next scientific revolution.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>If Stephen Wolfram is right, from now on, our most fundamental theories of physics may be *computational*.

This shift from mathematics to computation feels to me like a scientific revolution.

Recently, I asked Jonathan Gorard, who was instrumental in the founding of The Wolfram Physics Project, whether it feels to him, too, like a scientific revolution.

“I *think* so,” he said. “I mean, it’s a strong statement, but I don’t think it’ll end up being too inaccurate.”

(If you want to check out that part of our conversation, you can listen here or watch here.)

Here’s why, in my mind, Wolfram Physics is the next scientific revolution.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>In this third excerpt from my recent conversation with Jonathan, I asked him how he thought about that risk and why he decided to take it.

He told me that the opportunity to work with Stephen Wolfram on this new model is a bit like being given an opportunity to work with von Neumann and Ulam on cellular automata, or with Turing, Church and Gödel on computational models, back in the early twentieth century.

So I asked Jonathan whether he thought, as I do, that the reframing physics in terms of computation feels like we’re in a scientific revolution, as important as the reframing of physics in terms of mathematics several hundred years ago.

“It’s a strong statement,” he replied, “but I don’t think it’ll end up being too inaccurate.”

For me, the opportunity to talk to Jonathan about Wolfram Physics feels a bit like being given an opportunity to interview Dirac, Heisenberg, Pauli or Schrödinger back in the early days of quantum mechanics.

These are exciting times.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter

People and Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- ZX-Calculus and Extended Hypergraph Rewriting Systems I: A Multiway Approach to Categorical Quantum Information Theory – Jonathan Gorard, Manojna Namuduri, Xerxes D. Arsiwalla
- ZX-Calculus and Extended Wolfram Model Systems II: Fast Diagrammatic Reasoning with an Application to Quantum Circuit Simplification – Jonathan Gorard, Manojna Namuduri, Xerxes D. Arsiwalla

Image credits

- John von Neumann – Los Alamos National Laboratory
- Stanisław Ulam – Los Alamos National Laboratory

For images from the Los Alamos National Laboratory: Unless otherwise indicated, this information has been authored by an employee or employees of the Triad National Security, LLC, operator of the Los Alamos National Laboratory with the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. Government has rights to use, reproduce, and distribute this information. The public may copy and use this information without charge, provided that this Notice and any statement of authorship are reproduced on all copies. Neither the Government nor Triad makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any liability or responsibility for the use of this information.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>In this third excerpt from my recent conversation with Jonathan, I asked him how he thought about that risk and why he decided to take it.

He told me that the opportunity to work with Stephen Wolfram on this new model is a bit like being given an opportunity to work with von Neumann and Ulam on cellular automata, or with Turing, Church and Gödel on computational models, back in the early twentieth century.

So I asked Jonathan whether he thought, as I do, that the reframing physics in terms of computation feels like we’re in a scientific revolution, as important as the reframing of physics in terms of mathematics several hundred years ago.

“It’s a strong statement,” he replied, “but I don’t think it’ll end up being too inaccurate.”

For me, the opportunity to talk to Jonathan about Wolfram Physics feels a bit like being given an opportunity to interview Dirac, Heisenberg, Pauli or Schrödinger back in the early days of quantum mechanics.

These are exciting times.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter

People and Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- ZX-Calculus and Extended Hypergraph Rewriting Systems I: A Multiway Approach to Categorical Quantum Information Theory – Jonathan Gorard, Manojna Namuduri, Xerxes D. Arsiwalla
- ZX-Calculus and Extended Wolfram Model Systems II: Fast Diagrammatic Reasoning with an Application to Quantum Circuit Simplification – Jonathan Gorard, Manojna Namuduri, Xerxes D. Arsiwalla

Image credits

- John von Neumann – Los Alamos National Laboratory
- Stanisław Ulam – Los Alamos National Laboratory

For images from the Los Alamos National Laboratory: Unless otherwise indicated, this information has been authored by an employee or employees of the Triad National Security, LLC, operator of the Los Alamos National Laboratory with the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. Government has rights to use, reproduce, and distribute this information. The public may copy and use this information without charge, provided that this Notice and any statement of authorship are reproduced on all copies. Neither the Government nor Triad makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any liability or responsibility for the use of this information.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>When we’re applying a rule to a graph in Wolfram Physics, there are generally many possible places in the graph we could apply the rule, giving us many possible next states of the universe.

Here’s the radical idea: rather than choose *one* of these possible universes, we choose *not* to choose. Instead, we keep each of them in mind.

The trouble is, if we choose *not* to choose, the number of possible universes we have to keep in mind gets extremely large extremely quickly.

To help us visualize all these possible universes, we’re going to need the multiway graph

.

It’s a crucial idea in Wolfram Physics.

The multiway graph will allow us to derive aspects of quantum mechanics from Wolfram Physics.

It’ll lead us to a concept of the *observer* that promises to resolve issues related to the collapse of the wavefunction that have plagued quantum mechanics ever since Schrödinger put his metaphorical cat into a metaphorical cage.

And maybe, just maybe, it’ll lead us to a model of consciousness itself.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>When we’re applying a rule to a graph in Wolfram Physics, there are generally many possible places in the graph we could apply the rule, giving us many possible next states of the universe.

Here’s the radical idea: rather than choose *one* of these possible universes, we choose *not* to choose. Instead, we keep each of them in mind.

The trouble is, if we choose *not* to choose, the number of possible universes we have to keep in mind gets extremely large extremely quickly.

To help us visualize all these possible universes, we’re going to need the multiway graph

.

It’s a crucial idea in Wolfram Physics.

The multiway graph will allow us to derive aspects of quantum mechanics from Wolfram Physics.

It’ll lead us to a concept of the *observer* that promises to resolve issues related to the collapse of the wavefunction that have plagued quantum mechanics ever since Schrödinger put his metaphorical cat into a metaphorical cage.

And maybe, just maybe, it’ll lead us to a model of consciousness itself.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I asked Jonathan why he found the computational approach to physics so compelling.

In his answer, he broached a wide range of fascinating topics in the philosophy of science:

- how we moved from a clockwork paradigm in the age of clockwork to a computational paradigm in the age of computation;
- how saying that the universe is computational is different from saying that the universe is a computer;
- how our adoption of mathematics as the basis for physics has biased us to think of space-time as continuous;
- how the history of science might have been different had Turing been born before Newton;
- how the Wolfram Model can be thought of as a way of building a constructivist foundation for physics.

This led us to discuss a couple of the deeper questions of Wolfram Physics:

- is it possible to know whether the universe is continuous or discrete?
- does the hypergraph really exist?

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter

People and Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I asked Jonathan why he found the computational approach to physics so compelling.

In his answer, he broached a wide range of fascinating topics in the philosophy of science:

- how we moved from a clockwork paradigm in the age of clockwork to a computational paradigm in the age of computation;
- how saying that the universe is computational is different from saying that the universe is a computer;
- how our adoption of mathematics as the basis for physics has biased us to think of space-time as continuous;
- how the history of science might have been different had Turing been born before Newton;
- how the Wolfram Model can be thought of as a way of building a constructivist foundation for physics.

This led us to discuss a couple of the deeper questions of Wolfram Physics:

- is it possible to know whether the universe is continuous or discrete?
- does the hypergraph really exist?

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter

People and Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Now, I’ll admit, I don’t really *understand* String Theory.

It’s highly mathematical. And I’m not much of a mathematician. Actually, that’s an understatement. I’m not a mathematician at all.

So if there’s a problem in the relationship between String Theory and me, it might not be *String Theory*, it might be *me*.

Sadly, admitting that *I* might be part of the problem doesn’t change anything between us. I *still* don’t like String Theory.

Here’s why.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Now, I’ll admit, I don’t really *understand* String Theory.

It’s highly mathematical. And I’m not much of a mathematician. Actually, that’s an understatement. I’m not a mathematician at all.

So if there’s a problem in the relationship between String Theory and me, it might not be *String Theory*, it might be *me*.

Sadly, admitting that *I* might be part of the problem doesn’t change anything between us. I *still* don’t like String Theory.

Here’s why.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>This led to the announcement of The Wolfram Physics Project in 2020.

Last week, I talked to Jonathan Gorard about the revolutionary ideas that have come out of the project.

In this first excerpt from our conversation, Jonathan talks about his instrumental role in the founding of The Wolfram Physics Project.

We cover why the time was right in 2020... and why it had been wrong in 2002 when Stephen Wolfram published his book A New Kind of Science.

We talk about how Wolfram Physics might take over from string theory, why Jonathan likes string theory... and why he doesn’t.

It was a true pleasure to talk to Jonathan about what might prove a pivotal moment in the history of science.

—

Jonathan Gorard

People and Projects

- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project
- Stephen Wolfram’s announcement of the project
- Max Piskunov
- SetReplace on GitHub

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Irreducibility
- Undecidability
- Universality
- Current algebra
- Regge theory
- Gauge theory
- Standard Model
- String theory
- Poincaré group
- Mirror symmetry
- Calabi–Yau manifold
- K3 surface

—

Images

- Calabi–Yau manifold CalabiYau5 by Andrew J. Hanson, Indiana University, who allows use with attribution
- Feynman diagram Feynmann Diagram Gluon Radiation by Joel Holdsworth, public domain

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>This led to the announcement of The Wolfram Physics Project in 2020.

Last week, I talked to Jonathan Gorard about the revolutionary ideas that have come out of the project.

In this first excerpt from our conversation, Jonathan talks about his instrumental role in the founding of The Wolfram Physics Project.

We cover why the time was right in 2020... and why it had been wrong in 2002 when Stephen Wolfram published his book A New Kind of Science.

We talk about how Wolfram Physics might take over from string theory, why Jonathan likes string theory... and why he doesn’t.

It was a true pleasure to talk to Jonathan about what might prove a pivotal moment in the history of science.

—

Jonathan Gorard

People and Projects

- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project
- Stephen Wolfram’s announcement of the project
- Max Piskunov
- SetReplace on GitHub

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Irreducibility
- Undecidability
- Universality
- Current algebra
- Regge theory
- Gauge theory
- Standard Model
- String theory
- Poincaré group
- Mirror symmetry
- Calabi–Yau manifold
- K3 surface

—

Images

- Calabi–Yau manifold CalabiYau5 by Andrew J. Hanson, Indiana University, who allows use with attribution
- Feynman diagram Feynmann Diagram Gluon Radiation by Joel Holdsworth, public domain

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Maybe I’m just seeing things, but it seems to me that hypergraphs are *everywhere*: physics, chemistry, biology, neurology, ecology, sociology, technology.

What I want to know is:

*Why?*

*Why* are hypergraphs everywhere?

—

Molecular structure Styrene-butadiene chain2 by Guido Raos, professor of chemistry, Politecnico di Milano, Italy licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Metabolic pathway BRENDA pyrimidine metabolism by BRENDA – The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System licensed under CC BY 4.0

Brain image Neurons & glia by The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) licensed under CC BY 2.0

Pelagic food web An in situ perspective of a deep pelagic food web by C. Anela Choy, Steven H. D. Haddock and Bruce H. Robison licensed under CC BY 4.0

Social graph Partitions in my social graph by Matt Biddulph licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Internet map Internet map by Matt Britt licensed under CC BY 2.5

Feynman diagram Paarbildung by Ivan Baev licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Maybe I’m just seeing things, but it seems to me that hypergraphs are *everywhere*: physics, chemistry, biology, neurology, ecology, sociology, technology.

What I want to know is:

*Why?*

*Why* are hypergraphs everywhere?

—

Molecular structure Styrene-butadiene chain2 by Guido Raos, professor of chemistry, Politecnico di Milano, Italy licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Metabolic pathway BRENDA pyrimidine metabolism by BRENDA – The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System licensed under CC BY 4.0

Brain image Neurons & glia by The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) licensed under CC BY 2.0

Pelagic food web An in situ perspective of a deep pelagic food web by C. Anela Choy, Steven H. D. Haddock and Bruce H. Robison licensed under CC BY 4.0

Social graph Partitions in my social graph by Matt Biddulph licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Internet map Internet map by Matt Britt licensed under CC BY 2.5

Feynman diagram Paarbildung by Ivan Baev licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>This computer, if it exists, is necessarily invisible to us, and as I warned in Episode 12: Beware invisible things ( read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch ) we should be wary of what we can’t see.

Still, I want to revisit this idea of a computer that runs the universe.

I want to come at it from a slightly different direction.

Rather than adopt the stance of the monkey with its hands over its eyes and insist that if I can’t see it, it’s not there, let’s suppose that there *is* a computer that runs the universe and ask a simple question:

How *big* would it have to be?

—

Other episodes I mention:

- Episode 8: Where’s the computer that runs the universe? – read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch
- Episode 12: Beware invisible things – read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch
- Episode 15: Where to apply Wolfram’s rules? – read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>This computer, if it exists, is necessarily invisible to us, and as I warned in Episode 12: Beware invisible things ( read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch ) we should be wary of what we can’t see.

Still, I want to revisit this idea of a computer that runs the universe.

I want to come at it from a slightly different direction.

Rather than adopt the stance of the monkey with its hands over its eyes and insist that if I can’t see it, it’s not there, let’s suppose that there *is* a computer that runs the universe and ask a simple question:

How *big* would it have to be?

—

Other episodes I mention:

- Episode 8: Where’s the computer that runs the universe? – read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch
- Episode 12: Beware invisible things – read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch
- Episode 15: Where to apply Wolfram’s rules? – read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>A hyperedge can connect *any* number of nodes: one, two, three, four, seventeen or any other number.

And a hypergraph can include *any* of these different kinds of hyperedge, or *all* of them.

Let’s take a look at what this means for Wolfram Physics... and at some of the beautiful hypergraphs it allows us to generate!

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>A hyperedge can connect *any* number of nodes: one, two, three, four, seventeen or any other number.

And a hypergraph can include *any* of these different kinds of hyperedge, or *all* of them.

Let’s take a look at what this means for Wolfram Physics... and at some of the beautiful hypergraphs it allows us to generate!

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>But you may have come across simulations of Wolfram Physics using *hypergraphs*.

What’s the difference?

What *is* a hypergraph?

—

This epsiode refers to previous episodes on dimensionality:

- How to measure the dimensionality of the universe audio ⋅ video ⋅ article
- Are Wolfram’s graphs three‑dimensional? audio ⋅ video ⋅ article
- What are dimensions in Wolfram’s universe? audio ⋅ video ⋅ article

and previous episodes on space:

- What is space? the where and the how far audio ⋅ video ⋅ article
- The expanse: dimension, separation & explosion audio ⋅ video ⋅ article

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>But you may have come across simulations of Wolfram Physics using *hypergraphs*.

What’s the difference?

What *is* a hypergraph?

—

This epsiode refers to previous episodes on dimensionality:

- How to measure the dimensionality of the universe audio ⋅ video ⋅ article
- Are Wolfram’s graphs three‑dimensional? audio ⋅ video ⋅ article
- What are dimensions in Wolfram’s universe? audio ⋅ video ⋅ article

and previous episodes on space:

- What is space? the where and the how far audio ⋅ video ⋅ article
- The expanse: dimension, separation & explosion audio ⋅ video ⋅ article

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I’ve explained precisely *how* to apply a rule, but I’ve been strangely silent when it comes to *where* to apply the rule.

I know, it’s unlike me to be silent, right?

Time to come clean.

It turns out that the question of *where* to apply Wolfram’s rules is not as easily answered as you might think.

This seemingly straightforward question will take us into the philosophy of time, causality, consciousness, contingency and determinism.

And it’ll lead us towards some of the most important concepts in Wolfram Physics: the multiway graph, branchial space and causal invariance.

Check your breathing apparatus: we’re going deep.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I’ve explained precisely *how* to apply a rule, but I’ve been strangely silent when it comes to *where* to apply the rule.

I know, it’s unlike me to be silent, right?

Time to come clean.

It turns out that the question of *where* to apply Wolfram’s rules is not as easily answered as you might think.

This seemingly straightforward question will take us into the philosophy of time, causality, consciousness, contingency and determinism.

And it’ll lead us towards some of the most important concepts in Wolfram Physics: the multiway graph, branchial space and causal invariance.

Check your breathing apparatus: we’re going deep.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Ever since, physicists have thought of space and time as effectively the same thing: components of four-dimensional space-time.

This might be the biggest blunder physicists have ever made.

Stephen Wolfram, on page 22 of his book A project to find the Fundamental Theory of Physics, calls it the “one ‘wrong turn’ in the history of physics in the past century”.

Space-time is dead.

Here’s why... and how physicists got it so wrong for so long.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Ever since, physicists have thought of space and time as effectively the same thing: components of four-dimensional space-time.

This might be the biggest blunder physicists have ever made.

Stephen Wolfram, on page 22 of his book A project to find the Fundamental Theory of Physics, calls it the “one ‘wrong turn’ in the history of physics in the past century”.

Space-time is dead.

Here’s why... and how physicists got it so wrong for so long.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>A stone can be *anywhere* in space. It can be here. Or it can be an inch to the left. Or it can be half an inch further to the left. Or it can be an infinitesimal fraction of an inch even further to the left. Space is infinitely divisible.

The graphs of Wolfram Physics, however, are *discrete*.

If, as Stephen Wolfram proposes, the universe is a graph, then you *can’t* be just *anywhere* in space. It makes sense to think about a node of the graph as a position in space. It makes *no* sense to think about anywhere *in between* the nodes as positions in space. *This* space is *not* infinitely divisible.

It’s as if a stone could be *here* in space, or *here* in space, but nowhere in between.

So which is it?

Has every physicist from Leucippus to Einstein been right to insist that space is *continuous*?

Or is Wolfram right to up-end millennia of settled science and insist that space is *discrete*?

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>A stone can be *anywhere* in space. It can be here. Or it can be an inch to the left. Or it can be half an inch further to the left. Or it can be an infinitesimal fraction of an inch even further to the left. Space is infinitely divisible.

The graphs of Wolfram Physics, however, are *discrete*.

If, as Stephen Wolfram proposes, the universe is a graph, then you *can’t* be just *anywhere* in space. It makes sense to think about a node of the graph as a position in space. It makes *no* sense to think about anywhere *in between* the nodes as positions in space. *This* space is *not* infinitely divisible.

It’s as if a stone could be *here* in space, or *here* in space, but nowhere in between.

So which is it?

Has every physicist from Leucippus to Einstein been right to insist that space is *continuous*?

Or is Wolfram right to up-end millennia of settled science and insist that space is *discrete*?

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Poltergeists, fairies, unicorns, the Yeti, the Lost City of Atlantis.

Just because you can’t see them, it doesn’t mean they aren’t there.

Scientists, no less than any other humans, suffer from this fondness for invisible things.

Phlogiston, miasma, ether, strings.

Just because you can’t see them, scientists have insisted, it doesn’t mean they aren’t there.

Beware these invisible things.

As I explore Wolfram Physics, I’m aware of certain invisible things that we believe in now, but we’re going to have to let go, if Stephen Wolfram is right.

And I’m also aware of the temptation to replace this old set of invisible things with a new set of invisible things.

Here’s why we’d do well to resist.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Poltergeists, fairies, unicorns, the Yeti, the Lost City of Atlantis.

Just because you can’t see them, it doesn’t mean they aren’t there.

Scientists, no less than any other humans, suffer from this fondness for invisible things.

Phlogiston, miasma, ether, strings.

Just because you can’t see them, scientists have insisted, it doesn’t mean they aren’t there.

Beware these invisible things.

As I explore Wolfram Physics, I’m aware of certain invisible things that we believe in now, but we’re going to have to let go, if Stephen Wolfram is right.

And I’m also aware of the temptation to replace this old set of invisible things with a new set of invisible things.

Here’s why we’d do well to resist.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>But what would it mean to say that a universe is 2½-dimensional?

Or 3.37-dimensional?

Or 9-dimensional?

When I measured the dimensionality one of Wolfram’s graphs, I found it to be *at least* 3.37-dimensional.

If Stephen Wolfram is right, then our universe might *not* be uniformly three-dimensional.

So maybe dimensionality isn’t quite what we think it is.

What, exactly, *are* dimensions?

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>But what would it mean to say that a universe is 2½-dimensional?

Or 3.37-dimensional?

Or 9-dimensional?

When I measured the dimensionality one of Wolfram’s graphs, I found it to be *at least* 3.37-dimensional.

If Stephen Wolfram is right, then our universe might *not* be uniformly three-dimensional.

So maybe dimensionality isn’t quite what we think it is.

What, exactly, *are* dimensions?

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>In Episode #009: How to measure the dimensionality of the universe – watch the video or read the article – I introduced a mathematically-minded crab, which was able to determine the dimensionality of its universe by measuring how much space it covered moving different distances in every possible direction.

Now I’m going to use the same crabby method to determine the dimensionality of graphs generated by Wolfram Physics.

I’m finally going to answer the question: how many dimensions are there in one of Wolfram’s universes?

And the answer’s going to be unexpected.

Here’s a hint: it’s *not* two and it’s *not* three.

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals, so I recommend you watch the video or read the article rather than listen to the audio.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>In Episode #009: How to measure the dimensionality of the universe – watch the video or read the article – I introduced a mathematically-minded crab, which was able to determine the dimensionality of its universe by measuring how much space it covered moving different distances in every possible direction.

Now I’m going to use the same crabby method to determine the dimensionality of graphs generated by Wolfram Physics.

I’m finally going to answer the question: how many dimensions are there in one of Wolfram’s universes?

And the answer’s going to be unexpected.

Here’s a hint: it’s *not* two and it’s *not* three.

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals, so I recommend you watch the video or read the article rather than listen to the audio.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>In Episode #007: The expanse: dimension, separation & explosion – watch the video or read the article – I argued that the graphs of Wolfram Physics are going to have to be three-dimensional to be a true representation of our universe.

But how can we tell whether these graphs are three-dimensional? Many of them are so convoluted that it’s difficult to tell whether they’re two-dimensional, three-dimensional or somewhere in between.

I’m going to make the question even *more* difficult. We’ve been looking at graphs from the outside, from a God’s-eye view.

In reality, though, we’re not outside the graph. Remember, we’re hoping that the graphs of Wolfram Physics will prove to be a true representation of our universe, and we *can’t* be outside our *own* universe.

How could we tell whether a graph is two-dimensional, or three-dimensional, or even two-and-a-half-dimensional, from *inside* the graph?

How would we measure the dimensionality of our *own* universe?

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>In Episode #007: The expanse: dimension, separation & explosion – watch the video or read the article – I argued that the graphs of Wolfram Physics are going to have to be three-dimensional to be a true representation of our universe.

But how can we tell whether these graphs are three-dimensional? Many of them are so convoluted that it’s difficult to tell whether they’re two-dimensional, three-dimensional or somewhere in between.

I’m going to make the question even *more* difficult. We’ve been looking at graphs from the outside, from a God’s-eye view.

In reality, though, we’re not outside the graph. Remember, we’re hoping that the graphs of Wolfram Physics will prove to be a true representation of our universe, and we *can’t* be outside our *own* universe.

How could we tell whether a graph is two-dimensional, or three-dimensional, or even two-and-a-half-dimensional, from *inside* the graph?

How would we measure the dimensionality of our *own* universe?

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Where’s the computer that runs these simulations?

Well, it’s right here. This a low-powered laptop in my hand is literally the computer that runs these universes.

It’s natural to ask a follow-up question.

If Wolfram’s right and the *real* universe evolves computationally in the same way as these *simulated* universes, where’s the computer that runs *the* universe?

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Where’s the computer that runs these simulations?

Well, it’s right here. This a low-powered laptop in my hand is literally the computer that runs these universes.

It’s natural to ask a follow-up question.

If Wolfram’s right and the *real* universe evolves computationally in the same way as these *simulated* universes, where’s the computer that runs *the* universe?

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Today, I’m going to introduce three more characteristics of space: dimension, separation & explosion.

If it’s to be a viable theory of physics, Wolfram Physics has to accurately model space as we know it, including all five of these characteristics.

Let’s see how it measures up.

—

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals, so you might prefer to read the article, or watch the video, where they’re animated.

In the episode, I refer back to Episode #006: What is space? the where and the how far. Again, I recommend you watch the video or read the article rather than listen to the audio for that episode, since you’ll want to see the visuals!

Doppler siren by jobro reproduced under CC BY 3.0

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Today, I’m going to introduce three more characteristics of space: dimension, separation & explosion.

If it’s to be a viable theory of physics, Wolfram Physics has to accurately model space as we know it, including all five of these characteristics.

Let’s see how it measures up.

—

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals, so you might prefer to read the article, or watch the video, where they’re animated.

In the episode, I refer back to Episode #006: What is space? the where and the how far. Again, I recommend you watch the video or read the article rather than listen to the audio for that episode, since you’ll want to see the visuals!

Doppler siren by jobro reproduced under CC BY 3.0

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I’ve talked about the basic concepts of Wolfram Physics: nodes, edges, graphs & rules.

I just threw these concepts out there. No explanation. No rhyme, no reason. Nodes, edges, graphs & rules. Take them or leave them.

Naturally, this raised a few questions in some people’s minds.

These questions can be summed up as follows:

Wait... *What?* Nodes, edges, graphs & rules? *Why?*

This a *deep* question.

Let’s get into it.

—

This episode includes a few visuals, so you might prefer to read the article or watch the video.

In this episode, I refer back to Episode #004: Different rules, different universes. This one, too, includes a lot of visuals, so again, I recommend you watch the video or read the article rather than listen to the audio for that episode.

I also refer to a Polynesian stick chart. You can find it here: Micronesian navigational chart.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I’ve talked about the basic concepts of Wolfram Physics: nodes, edges, graphs & rules.

I just threw these concepts out there. No explanation. No rhyme, no reason. Nodes, edges, graphs & rules. Take them or leave them.

Naturally, this raised a few questions in some people’s minds.

These questions can be summed up as follows:

Wait... *What?* Nodes, edges, graphs & rules? *Why?*

This a *deep* question.

Let’s get into it.

—

This episode includes a few visuals, so you might prefer to read the article or watch the video.

In this episode, I refer back to Episode #004: Different rules, different universes. This one, too, includes a lot of visuals, so again, I recommend you watch the video or read the article rather than listen to the audio for that episode.

I also refer to a Polynesian stick chart. You can find it here: Micronesian navigational chart.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>When I try to answer them, though, I often find myself trapped in an infinite regress.

To address a question about Wolfram Physics, I might first need to address another, more fundamental question, about *physics*.

And to address *that* question, I might first need to address another, more fundamental question, than might be more *philosophy* than *physics*.

Today, I’m going to go to one of those deep questions that need to be asked, if not answered, before I can *begin* to address many of the questions I’ve been asked about Wolfram Physics.

What *is* physics?

Prefer to watch the video? Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>When I try to answer them, though, I often find myself trapped in an infinite regress.

To address a question about Wolfram Physics, I might first need to address another, more fundamental question, about *physics*.

And to address *that* question, I might first need to address another, more fundamental question, than might be more *philosophy* than *physics*.

Today, I’m going to go to one of those deep questions that need to be asked, if not answered, before I can *begin* to address many of the questions I’ve been asked about Wolfram Physics.

What *is* physics?

Prefer to watch the video? Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I’ve been coding coding coding the few weeks to develop my simulations of Wolfram Physics.

So now I’m able to explore a number of simple rules and ask a number of simple questions.

What different rules could be applied to our universe?

What different universes would arise from these rules?

Today, I explore different rules, different universes.

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals, so you might prefer to read the article, or watch the video, where they’re fully animated.

If you missed Episode #002, Nodes, edges, graphs & rules: the basic concepts of Wolfram Physics, you can find the article here and the video here.

]]>I’ve been coding coding coding the few weeks to develop my simulations of Wolfram Physics.

So now I’m able to explore a number of simple rules and ask a number of simple questions.

What different rules could be applied to our universe?

What different universes would arise from these rules?

Today, I explore different rules, different universes.

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals, so you might prefer to read the article, or watch the video, where they’re fully animated.

If you missed Episode #002, Nodes, edges, graphs & rules: the basic concepts of Wolfram Physics, you can find the article here and the video here.

]]>And yet you’ve probably never heard of it.

Here’s why.

—

Albert Einstein’s 1905 papers

Stephen Wolfram’s project to find the fundamental theory of physics

Stephen Wolfram’s 2020 announcement

There are maybe half a million physicists in the world

—

Prefer to watch the video? Watch here

The full article is here

]]>And yet you’ve probably never heard of it.

Here’s why.

—

Albert Einstein’s 1905 papers

Stephen Wolfram’s project to find the fundamental theory of physics

Stephen Wolfram’s 2020 announcement

There are maybe half a million physicists in the world

—

Prefer to watch the video? Watch here

The full article is here

]]>Today, I’m going to dive right into Wolfram Physics.

If you’ve never heard of Stephen Wolfram or his team’s project to find the fundamental theory of physics, don’t worry.

Think of it like this: I’m going to dive right into the fundamental structure of the universe.

And, well, you might not believe that the words “simple” and “physics” can go together, but I’m going to keep it simple.

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals.

You can find them in the article, or you might want to switch to watching the video, where they’re fully animated.

]]>Today, I’m going to dive right into Wolfram Physics.

If you’ve never heard of Stephen Wolfram or his team’s project to find the fundamental theory of physics, don’t worry.

Think of it like this: I’m going to dive right into the fundamental structure of the universe.

And, well, you might not believe that the words “simple” and “physics” can go together, but I’m going to keep it simple.

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals.

You can find them in the article, or you might want to switch to watching the video, where they’re fully animated.

]]>I always ask myself, why can’t that happen to me?

Well, it just did.

Let me explain.

In this week’s episode, I discuss why I’m writing about Wolfram Physics.

I’ll be digging into the details, as well as taking a step back to see some of the philosophical implications, in future episodes.

Prefer to watch the video? Watch at lasttheory.com/channel/001-why-i-am-writing-about-wolfram-physics

The full article is at lasttheory.com/article/why-i-am-writing-about-wolfram-physics

]]>I always ask myself, why can’t that happen to me?

Well, it just did.

Let me explain.

In this week’s episode, I discuss why I’m writing about Wolfram Physics.

I’ll be digging into the details, as well as taking a step back to see some of the philosophical implications, in future episodes.

Prefer to watch the video? Watch at lasttheory.com/channel/001-why-i-am-writing-about-wolfram-physics

The full article is at lasttheory.com/article/why-i-am-writing-about-wolfram-physics

]]>In 2020, Stephen Wolfram launched the Wolfram Physics Project to find the elusive fundamental theory that explains *everything*.

On The Last Theory, I investigate the implications of Wolfram’s ideas and dig into the details of how his universe works.

Join me for fresh insights into Wolfram Physics every other week: subscribe to the free newsletter, podcast or YouTube channel at lasttheory.com

After all, this might be the most fundamental scientific breakthrough of our time.

]]>In 2020, Stephen Wolfram launched the Wolfram Physics Project to find the elusive fundamental theory that explains *everything*.

On The Last Theory, I investigate the implications of Wolfram’s ideas and dig into the details of how his universe works.

Join me for fresh insights into Wolfram Physics every other week: subscribe to the free newsletter, podcast or YouTube channel at lasttheory.com

After all, this might be the most fundamental scientific breakthrough of our time.

]]>