They can play a crucial role in the evolution of graphs and hypergraphs... which means that they might play a crucial role in the evolution of the universe itself.

Loops and self-loops *matter*, because including them in our models reduces the number of arbitrary assumptions we need to make in Wolfram Physics, making it more *complete*.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>They can play a crucial role in the evolution of graphs and hypergraphs... which means that they might play a crucial role in the evolution of the universe itself.

Loops and self-loops *matter*, because including them in our models reduces the number of arbitrary assumptions we need to make in Wolfram Physics, making it more *complete*.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>As Jonathan Gorard mentioned in our recent conversation on How to draw the hypergraph in Wolfram Physics, Dugan has worked on plotting the evolution of the hypergraph over time.

We get into that in the second part of our conversation, but in this first part, I get to know Dugan as a mathematician and artist.

Enjoy his amazing animations of three-dimensional cross-sections through four-dimensional hypershapes!

—

Dugan Hammock

- Dugan Hammock’s videos on YouTube
- Dugan Hammock on Twitter
- Dugan Hammock at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Plotting the evolution of a Wolfram Model in 3-dimensions
- Temporally coherent animations of the evolution of Wolfram Models

People mentioned by Dugan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>As Jonathan Gorard mentioned in our recent conversation on How to draw the hypergraph in Wolfram Physics, Dugan has worked on plotting the evolution of the hypergraph over time.

We get into that in the second part of our conversation, but in this first part, I get to know Dugan as a mathematician and artist.

Enjoy his amazing animations of three-dimensional cross-sections through four-dimensional hypershapes!

—

Dugan Hammock

- Dugan Hammock’s videos on YouTube
- Dugan Hammock on Twitter
- Dugan Hammock at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Plotting the evolution of a Wolfram Model in 3-dimensions
- Temporally coherent animations of the evolution of Wolfram Models

People mentioned by Dugan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>

I used to think that our existing theories of physics, such as general relativity and quantum mechanics, were examples of computational *reducibility*: shortcuts that allow us to make higher-level generalizations about how the application of rules to the hypergraph gives rise to our universe.

Jonathan Gorard used to think this, too.

But it turns out that over the last couple of years, he has changed his mind on this quite radically.

General relativity and quantum mechanics, he now thinks, aren’t *examples* of computational *reducibility*, they’re *consequences* of computational *irreducibility*.

I truly appreciated this part of our conversation, because it radically changed my mind, too, about this crucial concept in Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Partition function
- Boltzmann equation
- Molecular chaos assumption
- Ergodicity
- Distribution function
- Chapman-Enskog expansion
- Stress tensor
- Navier-Stokes equations
- Euler equations

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>

I used to think that our existing theories of physics, such as general relativity and quantum mechanics, were examples of computational *reducibility*: shortcuts that allow us to make higher-level generalizations about how the application of rules to the hypergraph gives rise to our universe.

Jonathan Gorard used to think this, too.

But it turns out that over the last couple of years, he has changed his mind on this quite radically.

General relativity and quantum mechanics, he now thinks, aren’t *examples* of computational *reducibility*, they’re *consequences* of computational *irreducibility*.

I truly appreciated this part of our conversation, because it radically changed my mind, too, about this crucial concept in Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Partition function
- Boltzmann equation
- Molecular chaos assumption
- Ergodicity
- Distribution function
- Chapman-Enskog expansion
- Stress tensor
- Navier-Stokes equations
- Euler equations

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>What’s *beyond* the hypergraph?

And what’s *between* the nodes and edges of the hypergraph?

There’s a simple answer to this question.

Nothing.

There’s *nothing* beyond the hypergraph.

There’s *nothing* beyond the universe.

But it’s not a very effective answer.

So here’s a deeper response to the age-old question:

What’s beyond the universe?

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>What’s *beyond* the hypergraph?

And what’s *between* the nodes and edges of the hypergraph?

There’s a simple answer to this question.

Nothing.

There’s *nothing* beyond the hypergraph.

There’s *nothing* beyond the universe.

But it’s not a very effective answer.

So here’s a deeper response to the age-old question:

What’s beyond the universe?

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>So if we want to *see* the universe, we need only *draw* the hypergraph.

The question is: *how?*

The nodes and edges of the hypergraph are determined by the rules of Wolfram Physics. But how we *draw* those nodes and edges is *not* determined.

The drawing of the hypergraph is *not* the universe, it’s just a way of *visualizing* the universe.

So I asked Jonathan Gorard how we might decide where to position the nodes and edges when we draw the hypergraph, so that we can see what’s *really* going on in Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People mentioned by Jonathan

- Charles Pooh
- Dugan Hammock
- Plotting the evolution of a Wolfram Model in 3-dimensions by Dugan Hammock
- Temporally coherent animations of the evolution of Wolfram Models by Dugan Hammock

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Spring electrical embedding
- Spring embedding
- Layered embedding
- Causal graphs
- Coulomb’s law
- Hooke’s law

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>So if we want to *see* the universe, we need only *draw* the hypergraph.

The question is: *how?*

The nodes and edges of the hypergraph are determined by the rules of Wolfram Physics. But how we *draw* those nodes and edges is *not* determined.

The drawing of the hypergraph is *not* the universe, it’s just a way of *visualizing* the universe.

So I asked Jonathan Gorard how we might decide where to position the nodes and edges when we draw the hypergraph, so that we can see what’s *really* going on in Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People mentioned by Jonathan

- Charles Pooh
- Dugan Hammock
- Plotting the evolution of a Wolfram Model in 3-dimensions by Dugan Hammock
- Temporally coherent animations of the evolution of Wolfram Models by Dugan Hammock

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Spring electrical embedding
- Spring embedding
- Layered embedding
- Causal graphs
- Coulomb’s law
- Hooke’s law

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>There’s a straightforward answer to that question.

It’s the point in the evolution of the universe where the hypergraph goes from nothing to something.

It’s the start of the explosion that eventually yields the uncountable particles, planets, stars and galaxies of our universe.

So that’s pretty straightforward, isn’t it?

Well, yes, except that there’s one phrase above that demands further explanation: *nothing to something*.

How does the universe go from *nothing* to *something*?

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>There’s a straightforward answer to that question.

It’s the point in the evolution of the universe where the hypergraph goes from nothing to something.

It’s the start of the explosion that eventually yields the uncountable particles, planets, stars and galaxies of our universe.

So that’s pretty straightforward, isn’t it?

Well, yes, except that there’s one phrase above that demands further explanation: *nothing to something*.

How does the universe go from *nothing* to *something*?

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Does Wolfram Physics really need *hypergraphs*?

Or could it based on *graphs* instead?

Jonathan Gorard shares some interesting insights into the evolution of Stephen Wolfram’s model for a fundamental theory of physics.

Wolfram started with trivalent graphs, in which each edge joins *two* nodes, and each node has *three* edges.

But when he ran into issues implementing simulations using these simple *graphs*, he solved the problem by graduating to *hypergraphs*, in which each *hyperedge* can join any number of nodes, and each node can have any number of *hyperedges*.

Here’s how hypergraphs, rather than graphs, came to be the basis of Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Does Wolfram Physics really need *hypergraphs*?

Or could it based on *graphs* instead?

Jonathan Gorard shares some interesting insights into the evolution of Stephen Wolfram’s model for a fundamental theory of physics.

Wolfram started with trivalent graphs, in which each edge joins *two* nodes, and each node has *three* edges.

But when he ran into issues implementing simulations using these simple *graphs*, he solved the problem by graduating to *hypergraphs*, in which each *hyperedge* can join any number of nodes, and each node can have any number of *hyperedges*.

Here’s how hypergraphs, rather than graphs, came to be the basis of Wolfram Physics.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>How am I going to thank you for reading, listening, watching and subscribing?

Well, by bringing you *more* Wolfram Physics in the New Year, that’s how.

Here are 7 directions I want to take The Last Theory in 2023.

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>How am I going to thank you for reading, listening, watching and subscribing?

Well, by bringing you *more* Wolfram Physics in the New Year, that’s how.

Here are 7 directions I want to take The Last Theory in 2023.

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Why?

What is it about hypergraphs that might make them a better model of the universe than, say, strings of characters, or cellular automata, or Turing machines?

When I asked Jonathan Gorard this question, he gave an answer that was deeply insightful.

It’s such a core question, so fundamental to why we should take the Wolfram model seriously, that I’ve listened to Jonathan’s answer over and over.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People and Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Roger Penrose
- Rafael Sorkin
- Tommaso Bolognesi
- Causal Set Theory
- Hasse diagram
- Riemannian distance
- Strings (of characters)
- Cellular automata
- Turing machines
- Lorentz invariance
- General covariance

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Why?

What is it about hypergraphs that might make them a better model of the universe than, say, strings of characters, or cellular automata, or Turing machines?

When I asked Jonathan Gorard this question, he gave an answer that was deeply insightful.

It’s such a core question, so fundamental to why we should take the Wolfram model seriously, that I’ve listened to Jonathan’s answer over and over.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter
- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project

People and Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Roger Penrose
- Rafael Sorkin
- Tommaso Bolognesi
- Causal Set Theory
- Hasse diagram
- Riemannian distance
- Strings (of characters)
- Cellular automata
- Turing machines
- Lorentz invariance
- General covariance

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>If Stephen Wolfram is right, from now on, our most fundamental theories of physics may be *computational*.

This shift from mathematics to computation feels to me like a scientific revolution.

Recently, I asked Jonathan Gorard, who was instrumental in the founding of The Wolfram Physics Project, whether it feels to him, too, like a scientific revolution.

“I *think* so,” he said. “I mean, it’s a strong statement, but I don’t think it’ll end up being too inaccurate.”

(If you want to check out that part of our conversation, you can listen here or watch here.)

Here’s why, in my mind, Wolfram Physics is the next scientific revolution.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>If Stephen Wolfram is right, from now on, our most fundamental theories of physics may be *computational*.

This shift from mathematics to computation feels to me like a scientific revolution.

Recently, I asked Jonathan Gorard, who was instrumental in the founding of The Wolfram Physics Project, whether it feels to him, too, like a scientific revolution.

“I *think* so,” he said. “I mean, it’s a strong statement, but I don’t think it’ll end up being too inaccurate.”

(If you want to check out that part of our conversation, you can listen here or watch here.)

Here’s why, in my mind, Wolfram Physics is the next scientific revolution.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>In this third excerpt from my recent conversation with Jonathan, I asked him how he thought about that risk and why he decided to take it.

He told me that the opportunity to work with Stephen Wolfram on this new model is a bit like being given an opportunity to work with von Neumann and Ulam on cellular automata, or with Turing, Church and Gödel on computational models, back in the early twentieth century.

So I asked Jonathan whether he thought, as I do, that the reframing physics in terms of computation feels like we’re in a scientific revolution, as important as the reframing of physics in terms of mathematics several hundred years ago.

“It’s a strong statement,” he replied, “but I don’t think it’ll end up being too inaccurate.”

For me, the opportunity to talk to Jonathan about Wolfram Physics feels a bit like being given an opportunity to interview Dirac, Heisenberg, Pauli or Schrödinger back in the early days of quantum mechanics.

These are exciting times.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter

People and Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- ZX-Calculus and Extended Hypergraph Rewriting Systems I: A Multiway Approach to Categorical Quantum Information Theory – Jonathan Gorard, Manojna Namuduri, Xerxes D. Arsiwalla
- ZX-Calculus and Extended Wolfram Model Systems II: Fast Diagrammatic Reasoning with an Application to Quantum Circuit Simplification – Jonathan Gorard, Manojna Namuduri, Xerxes D. Arsiwalla

Image credits

- John von Neumann – Los Alamos National Laboratory
- Stanisław Ulam – Los Alamos National Laboratory

For images from the Los Alamos National Laboratory: Unless otherwise indicated, this information has been authored by an employee or employees of the Triad National Security, LLC, operator of the Los Alamos National Laboratory with the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. Government has rights to use, reproduce, and distribute this information. The public may copy and use this information without charge, provided that this Notice and any statement of authorship are reproduced on all copies. Neither the Government nor Triad makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any liability or responsibility for the use of this information.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>In this third excerpt from my recent conversation with Jonathan, I asked him how he thought about that risk and why he decided to take it.

He told me that the opportunity to work with Stephen Wolfram on this new model is a bit like being given an opportunity to work with von Neumann and Ulam on cellular automata, or with Turing, Church and Gödel on computational models, back in the early twentieth century.

So I asked Jonathan whether he thought, as I do, that the reframing physics in terms of computation feels like we’re in a scientific revolution, as important as the reframing of physics in terms of mathematics several hundred years ago.

“It’s a strong statement,” he replied, “but I don’t think it’ll end up being too inaccurate.”

For me, the opportunity to talk to Jonathan about Wolfram Physics feels a bit like being given an opportunity to interview Dirac, Heisenberg, Pauli or Schrödinger back in the early days of quantum mechanics.

These are exciting times.

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter

People and Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- ZX-Calculus and Extended Hypergraph Rewriting Systems I: A Multiway Approach to Categorical Quantum Information Theory – Jonathan Gorard, Manojna Namuduri, Xerxes D. Arsiwalla
- ZX-Calculus and Extended Wolfram Model Systems II: Fast Diagrammatic Reasoning with an Application to Quantum Circuit Simplification – Jonathan Gorard, Manojna Namuduri, Xerxes D. Arsiwalla

Image credits

- John von Neumann – Los Alamos National Laboratory
- Stanisław Ulam – Los Alamos National Laboratory

For images from the Los Alamos National Laboratory: Unless otherwise indicated, this information has been authored by an employee or employees of the Triad National Security, LLC, operator of the Los Alamos National Laboratory with the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. Government has rights to use, reproduce, and distribute this information. The public may copy and use this information without charge, provided that this Notice and any statement of authorship are reproduced on all copies. Neither the Government nor Triad makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any liability or responsibility for the use of this information.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>When we’re applying a rule to a graph in Wolfram Physics, there are generally many possible places in the graph we could apply the rule, giving us many possible next states of the universe.

Here’s the radical idea: rather than choose *one* of these possible universes, we choose *not* to choose. Instead, we keep each of them in mind.

The trouble is, if we choose *not* to choose, the number of possible universes we have to keep in mind gets extremely large extremely quickly.

To help us visualize all these possible universes, we’re going to need the multiway graph

.

It’s a crucial idea in Wolfram Physics.

The multiway graph will allow us to derive aspects of quantum mechanics from Wolfram Physics.

It’ll lead us to a concept of the *observer* that promises to resolve issues related to the collapse of the wavefunction that have plagued quantum mechanics ever since Schrödinger put his metaphorical cat into a metaphorical cage.

And maybe, just maybe, it’ll lead us to a model of consciousness itself.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>When we’re applying a rule to a graph in Wolfram Physics, there are generally many possible places in the graph we could apply the rule, giving us many possible next states of the universe.

Here’s the radical idea: rather than choose *one* of these possible universes, we choose *not* to choose. Instead, we keep each of them in mind.

The trouble is, if we choose *not* to choose, the number of possible universes we have to keep in mind gets extremely large extremely quickly.

To help us visualize all these possible universes, we’re going to need the multiway graph

.

It’s a crucial idea in Wolfram Physics.

The multiway graph will allow us to derive aspects of quantum mechanics from Wolfram Physics.

It’ll lead us to a concept of the *observer* that promises to resolve issues related to the collapse of the wavefunction that have plagued quantum mechanics ever since Schrödinger put his metaphorical cat into a metaphorical cage.

And maybe, just maybe, it’ll lead us to a model of consciousness itself.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I asked Jonathan why he found the computational approach to physics so compelling.

In his answer, he broached a wide range of fascinating topics in the philosophy of science:

- how we moved from a clockwork paradigm in the age of clockwork to a computational paradigm in the age of computation;
- how saying that the universe is computational is different from saying that the universe is a computer;
- how our adoption of mathematics as the basis for physics has biased us to think of space-time as continuous;
- how the history of science might have been different had Turing been born before Newton;
- how the Wolfram Model can be thought of as a way of building a constructivist foundation for physics.

This led us to discuss a couple of the deeper questions of Wolfram Physics:

- is it possible to know whether the universe is continuous or discrete?
- does the hypergraph really exist?

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter

People and Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I asked Jonathan why he found the computational approach to physics so compelling.

In his answer, he broached a wide range of fascinating topics in the philosophy of science:

- how we moved from a clockwork paradigm in the age of clockwork to a computational paradigm in the age of computation;
- how saying that the universe is computational is different from saying that the universe is a computer;
- how our adoption of mathematics as the basis for physics has biased us to think of space-time as continuous;
- how the history of science might have been different had Turing been born before Newton;
- how the Wolfram Model can be thought of as a way of building a constructivist foundation for physics.

This led us to discuss a couple of the deeper questions of Wolfram Physics:

- is it possible to know whether the universe is continuous or discrete?
- does the hypergraph really exist?

—

Jonathan Gorard

- Jonathan Gorard at The Wolfram Physics Project
- Jonathan Gorard at Cardiff University
- Jonathan Gorard on Twitter

People and Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Now, I’ll admit, I don’t really *understand* String Theory.

It’s highly mathematical. And I’m not much of a mathematician. Actually, that’s an understatement. I’m not a mathematician at all.

So if there’s a problem in the relationship between String Theory and me, it might not be *String Theory*, it might be *me*.

Sadly, admitting that *I* might be part of the problem doesn’t change anything between us. I *still* don’t like String Theory.

Here’s why.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Now, I’ll admit, I don’t really *understand* String Theory.

It’s highly mathematical. And I’m not much of a mathematician. Actually, that’s an understatement. I’m not a mathematician at all.

So if there’s a problem in the relationship between String Theory and me, it might not be *String Theory*, it might be *me*.

Sadly, admitting that *I* might be part of the problem doesn’t change anything between us. I *still* don’t like String Theory.

Here’s why.

–

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>This led to the announcement of The Wolfram Physics Project in 2020.

Last week, I talked to Jonathan Gorard about the revolutionary ideas that have come out of the project.

In this first excerpt from our conversation, Jonathan talks about his instrumental role in the founding of The Wolfram Physics Project.

We cover why the time was right in 2020... and why it had been wrong in 2002 when Stephen Wolfram published his book A New Kind of Science.

We talk about how Wolfram Physics might take over from string theory, why Jonathan likes string theory... and why he doesn’t.

It was a true pleasure to talk to Jonathan about what might prove a pivotal moment in the history of science.

—

Jonathan Gorard

People and Projects

- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project
- Stephen Wolfram’s announcement of the project
- Max Piskunov
- SetReplace on GitHub

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Irreducibility
- Undecidability
- Universality
- Current algebra
- Regge theory
- Gauge theory
- Standard Model
- String theory
- Poincaré group
- Mirror symmetry
- Calabi–Yau manifold
- K3 surface

—

Images

- Calabi–Yau manifold CalabiYau5 by Andrew J. Hanson, Indiana University, who allows use with attribution
- Feynman diagram Feynmann Diagram Gluon Radiation by Joel Holdsworth, public domain

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>This led to the announcement of The Wolfram Physics Project in 2020.

Last week, I talked to Jonathan Gorard about the revolutionary ideas that have come out of the project.

In this first excerpt from our conversation, Jonathan talks about his instrumental role in the founding of The Wolfram Physics Project.

We cover why the time was right in 2020... and why it had been wrong in 2002 when Stephen Wolfram published his book A New Kind of Science.

We talk about how Wolfram Physics might take over from string theory, why Jonathan likes string theory... and why he doesn’t.

It was a true pleasure to talk to Jonathan about what might prove a pivotal moment in the history of science.

—

Jonathan Gorard

People and Projects

- The Centre for Applied Compositionality
- The Wolfram Physics Project
- Stephen Wolfram’s announcement of the project
- Max Piskunov
- SetReplace on GitHub

Concepts mentioned by Jonathan

- Irreducibility
- Undecidability
- Universality
- Current algebra
- Regge theory
- Gauge theory
- Standard Model
- String theory
- Poincaré group
- Mirror symmetry
- Calabi–Yau manifold
- K3 surface

—

Images

- Calabi–Yau manifold CalabiYau5 by Andrew J. Hanson, Indiana University, who allows use with attribution
- Feynman diagram Feynmann Diagram Gluon Radiation by Joel Holdsworth, public domain

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Maybe I’m just seeing things, but it seems to me that hypergraphs are *everywhere*: physics, chemistry, biology, neurology, ecology, sociology, technology.

What I want to know is:

*Why?*

*Why* are hypergraphs everywhere?

—

Molecular structure Styrene-butadiene chain2 by Guido Raos, professor of chemistry, Politecnico di Milano, Italy licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Metabolic pathway BRENDA pyrimidine metabolism by BRENDA – The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System licensed under CC BY 4.0

Brain image Neurons & glia by The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) licensed under CC BY 2.0

Pelagic food web An in situ perspective of a deep pelagic food web by C. Anela Choy, Steven H. D. Haddock and Bruce H. Robison licensed under CC BY 4.0

Social graph Partitions in my social graph by Matt Biddulph licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Internet map Internet map by Matt Britt licensed under CC BY 2.5

Feynman diagram Paarbildung by Ivan Baev licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Maybe I’m just seeing things, but it seems to me that hypergraphs are *everywhere*: physics, chemistry, biology, neurology, ecology, sociology, technology.

What I want to know is:

*Why?*

*Why* are hypergraphs everywhere?

—

Molecular structure Styrene-butadiene chain2 by Guido Raos, professor of chemistry, Politecnico di Milano, Italy licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Metabolic pathway BRENDA pyrimidine metabolism by BRENDA – The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System licensed under CC BY 4.0

Brain image Neurons & glia by The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) licensed under CC BY 2.0

Pelagic food web An in situ perspective of a deep pelagic food web by C. Anela Choy, Steven H. D. Haddock and Bruce H. Robison licensed under CC BY 4.0

Social graph Partitions in my social graph by Matt Biddulph licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Internet map Internet map by Matt Britt licensed under CC BY 2.5

Feynman diagram Paarbildung by Ivan Baev licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>This computer, if it exists, is necessarily invisible to us, and as I warned in Episode 12: Beware invisible things ( read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch ) we should be wary of what we can’t see.

Still, I want to revisit this idea of a computer that runs the universe.

I want to come at it from a slightly different direction.

Rather than adopt the stance of the monkey with its hands over its eyes and insist that if I can’t see it, it’s not there, let’s suppose that there *is* a computer that runs the universe and ask a simple question:

How *big* would it have to be?

—

Other episodes I mention:

- Episode 8: Where’s the computer that runs the universe? – read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch
- Episode 12: Beware invisible things – read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch
- Episode 15: Where to apply Wolfram’s rules? – read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>This computer, if it exists, is necessarily invisible to us, and as I warned in Episode 12: Beware invisible things ( read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch ) we should be wary of what we can’t see.

Still, I want to revisit this idea of a computer that runs the universe.

I want to come at it from a slightly different direction.

Rather than adopt the stance of the monkey with its hands over its eyes and insist that if I can’t see it, it’s not there, let’s suppose that there *is* a computer that runs the universe and ask a simple question:

How *big* would it have to be?

—

Other episodes I mention:

- Episode 8: Where’s the computer that runs the universe? – read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch
- Episode 12: Beware invisible things – read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch
- Episode 15: Where to apply Wolfram’s rules? – read ⋅ listen ⋅ watch

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>A hyperedge can connect *any* number of nodes: one, two, three, four, seventeen or any other number.

And a hypergraph can include *any* of these different kinds of hyperedge, or *all* of them.

Let’s take a look at what this means for Wolfram Physics... and at some of the beautiful hypergraphs it allows us to generate!

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>A hyperedge can connect *any* number of nodes: one, two, three, four, seventeen or any other number.

And a hypergraph can include *any* of these different kinds of hyperedge, or *all* of them.

Let’s take a look at what this means for Wolfram Physics... and at some of the beautiful hypergraphs it allows us to generate!

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>But you may have come across simulations of Wolfram Physics using *hypergraphs*.

What’s the difference?

What *is* a hypergraph?

—

This epsiode refers to previous episodes on dimensionality:

- How to measure the dimensionality of the universe audio ⋅ video ⋅ article
- Are Wolfram’s graphs three‑dimensional? audio ⋅ video ⋅ article
- What are dimensions in Wolfram’s universe? audio ⋅ video ⋅ article

and previous episodes on space:

- What is space? the where and the how far audio ⋅ video ⋅ article
- The expanse: dimension, separation & explosion audio ⋅ video ⋅ article

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>But you may have come across simulations of Wolfram Physics using *hypergraphs*.

What’s the difference?

What *is* a hypergraph?

—

This epsiode refers to previous episodes on dimensionality:

- How to measure the dimensionality of the universe audio ⋅ video ⋅ article
- Are Wolfram’s graphs three‑dimensional? audio ⋅ video ⋅ article
- What are dimensions in Wolfram’s universe? audio ⋅ video ⋅ article

and previous episodes on space:

- What is space? the where and the how far audio ⋅ video ⋅ article
- The expanse: dimension, separation & explosion audio ⋅ video ⋅ article

—

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I’ve explained precisely *how* to apply a rule, but I’ve been strangely silent when it comes to *where* to apply the rule.

I know, it’s unlike me to be silent, right?

Time to come clean.

It turns out that the question of *where* to apply Wolfram’s rules is not as easily answered as you might think.

This seemingly straightforward question will take us into the philosophy of time, causality, consciousness, contingency and determinism.

And it’ll lead us towards some of the most important concepts in Wolfram Physics: the multiway graph, branchial space and causal invariance.

Check your breathing apparatus: we’re going deep.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I’ve explained precisely *how* to apply a rule, but I’ve been strangely silent when it comes to *where* to apply the rule.

I know, it’s unlike me to be silent, right?

Time to come clean.

It turns out that the question of *where* to apply Wolfram’s rules is not as easily answered as you might think.

This seemingly straightforward question will take us into the philosophy of time, causality, consciousness, contingency and determinism.

And it’ll lead us towards some of the most important concepts in Wolfram Physics: the multiway graph, branchial space and causal invariance.

Check your breathing apparatus: we’re going deep.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Ever since, physicists have thought of space and time as effectively the same thing: components of four-dimensional space-time.

This might be the biggest blunder physicists have ever made.

Stephen Wolfram, on page 22 of his book A project to find the Fundamental Theory of Physics, calls it the “one ‘wrong turn’ in the history of physics in the past century”.

Space-time is dead.

Here’s why... and how physicists got it so wrong for so long.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Ever since, physicists have thought of space and time as effectively the same thing: components of four-dimensional space-time.

This might be the biggest blunder physicists have ever made.

Stephen Wolfram, on page 22 of his book A project to find the Fundamental Theory of Physics, calls it the “one ‘wrong turn’ in the history of physics in the past century”.

Space-time is dead.

Here’s why... and how physicists got it so wrong for so long.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>A stone can be *anywhere* in space. It can be here. Or it can be an inch to the left. Or it can be half an inch further to the left. Or it can be an infinitesimal fraction of an inch even further to the left. Space is infinitely divisible.

The graphs of Wolfram Physics, however, are *discrete*.

If, as Stephen Wolfram proposes, the universe is a graph, then you *can’t* be just *anywhere* in space. It makes sense to think about a node of the graph as a position in space. It makes *no* sense to think about anywhere *in between* the nodes as positions in space. *This* space is *not* infinitely divisible.

It’s as if a stone could be *here* in space, or *here* in space, but nowhere in between.

So which is it?

Has every physicist from Leucippus to Einstein been right to insist that space is *continuous*?

Or is Wolfram right to up-end millennia of settled science and insist that space is *discrete*?

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>A stone can be *anywhere* in space. It can be here. Or it can be an inch to the left. Or it can be half an inch further to the left. Or it can be an infinitesimal fraction of an inch even further to the left. Space is infinitely divisible.

The graphs of Wolfram Physics, however, are *discrete*.

If, as Stephen Wolfram proposes, the universe is a graph, then you *can’t* be just *anywhere* in space. It makes sense to think about a node of the graph as a position in space. It makes *no* sense to think about anywhere *in between* the nodes as positions in space. *This* space is *not* infinitely divisible.

It’s as if a stone could be *here* in space, or *here* in space, but nowhere in between.

So which is it?

Has every physicist from Leucippus to Einstein been right to insist that space is *continuous*?

Or is Wolfram right to up-end millennia of settled science and insist that space is *discrete*?

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Poltergeists, fairies, unicorns, the Yeti, the Lost City of Atlantis.

Just because you can’t see them, it doesn’t mean they aren’t there.

Scientists, no less than any other humans, suffer from this fondness for invisible things.

Phlogiston, miasma, ether, strings.

Just because you can’t see them, scientists have insisted, it doesn’t mean they aren’t there.

Beware these invisible things.

As I explore Wolfram Physics, I’m aware of certain invisible things that we believe in now, but we’re going to have to let go, if Stephen Wolfram is right.

And I’m also aware of the temptation to replace this old set of invisible things with a new set of invisible things.

Here’s why we’d do well to resist.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Poltergeists, fairies, unicorns, the Yeti, the Lost City of Atlantis.

Just because you can’t see them, it doesn’t mean they aren’t there.

Scientists, no less than any other humans, suffer from this fondness for invisible things.

Phlogiston, miasma, ether, strings.

Just because you can’t see them, scientists have insisted, it doesn’t mean they aren’t there.

Beware these invisible things.

As I explore Wolfram Physics, I’m aware of certain invisible things that we believe in now, but we’re going to have to let go, if Stephen Wolfram is right.

And I’m also aware of the temptation to replace this old set of invisible things with a new set of invisible things.

Here’s why we’d do well to resist.

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>But what would it mean to say that a universe is 2½-dimensional?

Or 3.37-dimensional?

Or 9-dimensional?

When I measured the dimensionality one of Wolfram’s graphs, I found it to be *at least* 3.37-dimensional.

If Stephen Wolfram is right, then our universe might *not* be uniformly three-dimensional.

So maybe dimensionality isn’t quite what we think it is.

What, exactly, *are* dimensions?

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>But what would it mean to say that a universe is 2½-dimensional?

Or 3.37-dimensional?

Or 9-dimensional?

When I measured the dimensionality one of Wolfram’s graphs, I found it to be *at least* 3.37-dimensional.

If Stephen Wolfram is right, then our universe might *not* be uniformly three-dimensional.

So maybe dimensionality isn’t quite what we think it is.

What, exactly, *are* dimensions?

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>In Episode #009: How to measure the dimensionality of the universe – watch the video or read the article – I introduced a mathematically-minded crab, which was able to determine the dimensionality of its universe by measuring how much space it covered moving different distances in every possible direction.

Now I’m going to use the same crabby method to determine the dimensionality of graphs generated by Wolfram Physics.

I’m finally going to answer the question: how many dimensions are there in one of Wolfram’s universes?

And the answer’s going to be unexpected.

Here’s a hint: it’s *not* two and it’s *not* three.

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals, so I recommend you watch the video or read the article rather than listen to the audio.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>In Episode #009: How to measure the dimensionality of the universe – watch the video or read the article – I introduced a mathematically-minded crab, which was able to determine the dimensionality of its universe by measuring how much space it covered moving different distances in every possible direction.

Now I’m going to use the same crabby method to determine the dimensionality of graphs generated by Wolfram Physics.

I’m finally going to answer the question: how many dimensions are there in one of Wolfram’s universes?

And the answer’s going to be unexpected.

Here’s a hint: it’s *not* two and it’s *not* three.

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals, so I recommend you watch the video or read the article rather than listen to the audio.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>In Episode #007: The expanse: dimension, separation & explosion – watch the video or read the article – I argued that the graphs of Wolfram Physics are going to have to be three-dimensional to be a true representation of our universe.

But how can we tell whether these graphs are three-dimensional? Many of them are so convoluted that it’s difficult to tell whether they’re two-dimensional, three-dimensional or somewhere in between.

I’m going to make the question even *more* difficult. We’ve been looking at graphs from the outside, from a God’s-eye view.

In reality, though, we’re not outside the graph. Remember, we’re hoping that the graphs of Wolfram Physics will prove to be a true representation of our universe, and we *can’t* be outside our *own* universe.

How could we tell whether a graph is two-dimensional, or three-dimensional, or even two-and-a-half-dimensional, from *inside* the graph?

How would we measure the dimensionality of our *own* universe?

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>In Episode #007: The expanse: dimension, separation & explosion – watch the video or read the article – I argued that the graphs of Wolfram Physics are going to have to be three-dimensional to be a true representation of our universe.

But how can we tell whether these graphs are three-dimensional? Many of them are so convoluted that it’s difficult to tell whether they’re two-dimensional, three-dimensional or somewhere in between.

I’m going to make the question even *more* difficult. We’ve been looking at graphs from the outside, from a God’s-eye view.

In reality, though, we’re not outside the graph. Remember, we’re hoping that the graphs of Wolfram Physics will prove to be a true representation of our universe, and we *can’t* be outside our *own* universe.

How could we tell whether a graph is two-dimensional, or three-dimensional, or even two-and-a-half-dimensional, from *inside* the graph?

How would we measure the dimensionality of our *own* universe?

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Where’s the computer that runs these simulations?

Well, it’s right here. This a low-powered laptop in my hand is literally the computer that runs these universes.

It’s natural to ask a follow-up question.

If Wolfram’s right and the *real* universe evolves computationally in the same way as these *simulated* universes, where’s the computer that runs *the* universe?

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Where’s the computer that runs these simulations?

Well, it’s right here. This a low-powered laptop in my hand is literally the computer that runs these universes.

It’s natural to ask a follow-up question.

If Wolfram’s right and the *real* universe evolves computationally in the same way as these *simulated* universes, where’s the computer that runs *the* universe?

I release The Last Theory as a video too! Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Today, I’m going to introduce three more characteristics of space: dimension, separation & explosion.

If it’s to be a viable theory of physics, Wolfram Physics has to accurately model space as we know it, including all five of these characteristics.

Let’s see how it measures up.

—

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals, so you might prefer to read the article, or watch the video, where they’re animated.

In the episode, I refer back to Episode #006: What is space? the where and the how far. Again, I recommend you watch the video or read the article rather than listen to the audio for that episode, since you’ll want to see the visuals!

Doppler siren by jobro reproduced under CC BY 3.0

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>Today, I’m going to introduce three more characteristics of space: dimension, separation & explosion.

If it’s to be a viable theory of physics, Wolfram Physics has to accurately model space as we know it, including all five of these characteristics.

Let’s see how it measures up.

—

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals, so you might prefer to read the article, or watch the video, where they’re animated.

In the episode, I refer back to Episode #006: What is space? the where and the how far. Again, I recommend you watch the video or read the article rather than listen to the audio for that episode, since you’ll want to see the visuals!

Doppler siren by jobro reproduced under CC BY 3.0

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I’ve talked about the basic concepts of Wolfram Physics: nodes, edges, graphs & rules.

I just threw these concepts out there. No explanation. No rhyme, no reason. Nodes, edges, graphs & rules. Take them or leave them.

Naturally, this raised a few questions in some people’s minds.

These questions can be summed up as follows:

Wait... *What?* Nodes, edges, graphs & rules? *Why?*

This a *deep* question.

Let’s get into it.

—

This episode includes a few visuals, so you might prefer to read the article or watch the video.

In this episode, I refer back to Episode #004: Different rules, different universes. This one, too, includes a lot of visuals, so again, I recommend you watch the video or read the article rather than listen to the audio for that episode.

I also refer to a Polynesian stick chart. You can find it here: Micronesian navigational chart.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I’ve talked about the basic concepts of Wolfram Physics: nodes, edges, graphs & rules.

I just threw these concepts out there. No explanation. No rhyme, no reason. Nodes, edges, graphs & rules. Take them or leave them.

Naturally, this raised a few questions in some people’s minds.

These questions can be summed up as follows:

Wait... *What?* Nodes, edges, graphs & rules? *Why?*

This a *deep* question.

Let’s get into it.

—

This episode includes a few visuals, so you might prefer to read the article or watch the video.

In this episode, I refer back to Episode #004: Different rules, different universes. This one, too, includes a lot of visuals, so again, I recommend you watch the video or read the article rather than listen to the audio for that episode.

I also refer to a Polynesian stick chart. You can find it here: Micronesian navigational chart.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>When I try to answer them, though, I often find myself trapped in an infinite regress.

To address a question about Wolfram Physics, I might first need to address another, more fundamental question, about *physics*.

And to address *that* question, I might first need to address another, more fundamental question, than might be more *philosophy* than *physics*.

Today, I’m going to go to one of those deep questions that need to be asked, if not answered, before I can *begin* to address many of the questions I’ve been asked about Wolfram Physics.

What *is* physics?

Prefer to watch the video? Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>When I try to answer them, though, I often find myself trapped in an infinite regress.

To address a question about Wolfram Physics, I might first need to address another, more fundamental question, about *physics*.

And to address *that* question, I might first need to address another, more fundamental question, than might be more *philosophy* than *physics*.

Today, I’m going to go to one of those deep questions that need to be asked, if not answered, before I can *begin* to address many of the questions I’ve been asked about Wolfram Physics.

What *is* physics?

Prefer to watch the video? Watch here.

The full article is here.

Kootenay Village Ventures Inc.

]]>I’ve been coding coding coding the few weeks to develop my simulations of Wolfram Physics.

So now I’m able to explore a number of simple rules and ask a number of simple questions.

What different rules could be applied to our universe?

What different universes would arise from these rules?

Today, I explore different rules, different universes.

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals, so you might prefer to read the article, or watch the video, where they’re fully animated.

If you missed Episode #002, Nodes, edges, graphs & rules: the basic concepts of Wolfram Physics, you can find the article here and the video here.

]]>I’ve been coding coding coding the few weeks to develop my simulations of Wolfram Physics.

So now I’m able to explore a number of simple rules and ask a number of simple questions.

What different rules could be applied to our universe?

What different universes would arise from these rules?

Today, I explore different rules, different universes.

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals, so you might prefer to read the article, or watch the video, where they’re fully animated.

If you missed Episode #002, Nodes, edges, graphs & rules: the basic concepts of Wolfram Physics, you can find the article here and the video here.

]]>And yet you’ve probably never heard of it.

Here’s why.

—

Albert Einstein’s 1905 papers

Stephen Wolfram’s project to find the fundamental theory of physics

Stephen Wolfram’s 2020 announcement

There are maybe half a million physicists in the world

—

Prefer to watch the video? Watch here

The full article is here

]]>And yet you’ve probably never heard of it.

Here’s why.

—

Albert Einstein’s 1905 papers

Stephen Wolfram’s project to find the fundamental theory of physics

Stephen Wolfram’s 2020 announcement

There are maybe half a million physicists in the world

—

Prefer to watch the video? Watch here

The full article is here

]]>Today, I’m going to dive right into Wolfram Physics.

If you’ve never heard of Stephen Wolfram or his team’s project to find the fundamental theory of physics, don’t worry.

Think of it like this: I’m going to dive right into the fundamental structure of the universe.

And, well, you might not believe that the words “simple” and “physics” can go together, but I’m going to keep it simple.

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals.

You can find them in the article, or you might want to switch to watching the video, where they’re fully animated.

]]>Today, I’m going to dive right into Wolfram Physics.

If you’ve never heard of Stephen Wolfram or his team’s project to find the fundamental theory of physics, don’t worry.

Think of it like this: I’m going to dive right into the fundamental structure of the universe.

And, well, you might not believe that the words “simple” and “physics” can go together, but I’m going to keep it simple.

Today’s episode includes a lot of visuals.

You can find them in the article, or you might want to switch to watching the video, where they’re fully animated.

]]>I always ask myself, why can’t that happen to me?

Well, it just did.

Let me explain.

In this week’s episode, I discuss why I’m writing about Wolfram Physics.

I’ll be digging into the details, as well as taking a step back to see some of the philosophical implications, in future episodes.

Prefer to watch the video? Watch at lasttheory.com/channel/001-why-i-am-writing-about-wolfram-physics

The full article is at lasttheory.com/article/why-i-am-writing-about-wolfram-physics

]]>I always ask myself, why can’t that happen to me?

Well, it just did.

Let me explain.

In this week’s episode, I discuss why I’m writing about Wolfram Physics.

I’ll be digging into the details, as well as taking a step back to see some of the philosophical implications, in future episodes.

Prefer to watch the video? Watch at lasttheory.com/channel/001-why-i-am-writing-about-wolfram-physics

The full article is at lasttheory.com/article/why-i-am-writing-about-wolfram-physics

]]>In 2020, Stephen Wolfram launched the Wolfram Physics Project to find the elusive fundamental theory that explains *everything*.

On The Last Theory, I investigate the implications of Wolfram’s ideas and dig into the details of how his universe works.

Join me for fresh insights into Wolfram Physics every other week: subscribe to the free newsletter, podcast or YouTube channel at lasttheory.com

After all, this might be the most fundamental scientific breakthrough of our time.

]]>In 2020, Stephen Wolfram launched the Wolfram Physics Project to find the elusive fundamental theory that explains *everything*.

On The Last Theory, I investigate the implications of Wolfram’s ideas and dig into the details of how his universe works.

Join me for fresh insights into Wolfram Physics every other week: subscribe to the free newsletter, podcast or YouTube channel at lasttheory.com

After all, this might be the most fundamental scientific breakthrough of our time.

]]>